Skip to main content

Full text of "Historic Structures Report: Crook House, San Juan Island National Historical Park"

See other formats


29.88:C 88 



Clemson University 




3 1604 019 700 832 



qs&sssrsr 



ftt 



1985 



UBRARX 



HISTORIC 

STRUCTURES 

REPORT 

CROOK HOUSE 

SEPTEMBER 1984 



SAN JUAN ISLAND 

NATIONAL 
HISTORICAL PARK 

CULTURAL RESOURCES DIVISION PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGION SEATTLE, WASHINGTON 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/historicstructurOOerig 






-Z. 


F 


5- 




ro 


*-3 


Q. 


r> 


r— 


oo 


f0 


•1 — 


a 


> 


r— 


03 


i. 


CD 


o 




-m 


_*: 


00 


O 


•I— 


O 


nz 


5- 




O 


i — 




ra 


>> 


e 


S- 


o 


(0 


•r— 


s 


+J 




HD 


K 


2: 


t/1 




•1 — 


"U 


> 


e 


f0 


f0 


Q 


. — 




LO 


+J 


• — i 


5- 




O) 


e 


-Q 


ro 


S~- 


=3 


cu 


^j 


zn 




i 


E 


i 


Tj 


4-> 


LA 


jz: 




Cn 


" 


■i— 


CC 


S_ 


o 




•1 — 


O 


+-> 


4-: 


u 




CD 


+-> 


1 — 


H- 


1 — 


0) 


o 


_J 


<_J 


ro 


E 


O 


o 


CT) 


L0 


i — 


S- 




a> 


• 


a 


03 


E 


U <C 


r 


ro. 


E 


"a 


O 


o 


• r— 


j-z 


+J 


oi 


OJ 




i — 


>^ 


Q. 


i — 


F 


JZa 


O 


■1— 


U 


oO 




t/1 


S- 


o 


CD 


Q. 


-M 




H- 


«> 


ro 


E 




ro 


E 


E 


O 


o 


O 


2 


1/1 






T3 


aj 


OJ 


to 


•1— 


3 


<■>- 


o 


■1— 


IE 


+J 




E 


_z 


OJ 


o 


— 


o 


»|— 


S- 


E 


C_3 


=3 




X3 


i — 


E 




ro 


UJ 




cc 


J* 


ZD 


O 


as 


O 


>--H 


S- 


u_ 


CJ 



My Life Story 

In English Camp 

Where British soldiers once did tramp 

There is where I've spent 

My long career. 

I 've hauled the logs 
And drained the bogs 
And worked 
With horse and steer. 

I've handled wood cord after cord 
And threw it down a slippery board 
At the bottom near the bow 
I piled it high up on the scow. 

I plowed up fields filled with stumps 
With tools on wheels I smoothed the lumps. 

To do hard work I have been forced 
But from hard work I'm now divorced. 

I hope again I'll never be married 

To heavy things that were hauled and carried 

Sometimes with work I'm forced to flirt 
By myself I'm careful not to hurt. 

I've done woodwork and every bevel 

And tried to drag girls down to my level. 

With watchful eye I long did look 
To change some good girl to a Crook. 

Until this time I've done no harm 
And now I've lost my youthful charm. 



■James Crook, n.d. 



CROOK HOUSE 
HISTORIC STRUCTURES REPORT 

English Camp 

San Juan Island National Historical Park 

San Juan Island, Washington 



Prepared by 

Patricia Erigero, Historian 

Barry Schnoll, Historical Architect 

August 1984 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION 1 

PART ONE 
BACKGROUND 

I . ADMINISTRATIVE DATA 5 

List of Classified Structures (5) — Planning Documents (5) 
--Justification of Proposed Treatment (6)--Recommended Changes in 
Proposed Treatment and Use of the Structure (7)--Recommendations 
for Documentation (8) 

II. GEOGRAPHIC AND NATURAL SETTING 9 

PART TWO 
HISTORY 

III. CONTEXT 17 

English Camp Structures (21 )--Civilian Settlement (23) 

IV. THE CROOK FAMILY 27 

V. THE CROOK HOUSE 47 

Interior Features (52) 

VI . SITE DEVELOPMENT 59 

PART THREE 
EXISTING SITE AND BUILDING CONDITIONS 

VII. SITE 69 

VIII. BUILDING 75 

Structural Systems (75)--Exterior Building Envelope (87 
--Mechanical System (90) — Electrical (94) — Interior (94! 
— Room-by-Room Description (96)— Door Schedule ( 102)— Window 
Schedule (103) 

PART FOUR 
BUILDING DEVELOPMENT 

IX. TARGET OBJECTIVES FOR BUILDING DEVELOPMENT 109 

Site (110)— Visitor Center (111)— Staff (1 12)— Curatorial (112) 
--Long Term (113) 



X. RECOMMENDED APPROACHES 115 

Site (115) — Visitor Center (118)— Staff (1 19)— Curatorial (122) 
—Long Term (123)— Areas of Future Study (124) 

XI. REHABILITATION TO MEET PROGRAM AND CODE REQUIREMENTS 125 

APPENDICES 139 

Statement of Significance (141)— Abridged Census Material (143) 
— Abridged San Juan County Property Assessment (145) — 1875 Auction 
Announcement (147) — James Crook, Sr., Drawing (149) — Standard 
Distribution List (151) 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 53 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

1. Crook House, ca. 1903 1 

2. Regional Map: San Juan Islands 10 

3. Vicinity Map: San Juan Islands 11 

4. English Camp During Royal Marines Occupation 19 

5. Engraving of English Camp, ca. 1870 26 

6. Mary Crook Davis, Jim Crook and Rhoda Crook, ca. 1900 37 

7. Carding Machine Built by Jim Crook 37 

8. Jim Crook with Homemade Wool Suit, ca. 1945 40 

9. Mary Crook Davis and Jim Crook, ca. 1955 45 

10. Crook House, ca. 1903 46 

11. Crook House Porch Brackets, 1984 46 

12. Crook House West Entry Door, 1984 51 

13. Crook House Second Floor Porch Door, 1984 51 

14. Ca. 1960 Kitchen Wing, Crook House, 1984 53 

15. Partial North Elevation, Crook House, 1984 53 

16. Interior Panel Door, Crook House, 1984 57 

17. Interior Window Trim, Crook House, 1984 57 

18. English Camp, ca. 1910 60 

19. English Camp, ca. 1880 61 

20. English Camp, ca. 1885 61 

21. English Camp, ca. 1895 63 

22. East Elevation of Masonry Ruins and Company Mess 63 

23. Crook Orchard in Royal Marine's Parade Ground, 1908 65 

24. Crook Sheep in Parade Ground, ca. 1915 65 

25. English Camp Site Plan 70 

26. West Elevation, Crook House 72 

27. South Elevation, Crook House 72 

28. North Elevation, Crook House 73 

29. North Elevation, Crook House 73 

30. West Elevation, Crook House 76 

31. South Elevation, Crook House 77 

32. East Elevation, Crook House 78 

33. North Elevation, Crook House 79 

34. Crook House Foundation, West End Under Porch, 1984 82 

35. Crook House Foundation, 

Notch in Log Girder for Original Post, 1984 82 

36. Beaded Board Ceiling of Second Floor Porch, 1984 85 

37. Crook House Porch, 1984 85 

38. West Porch Steps of Crook House, 1984 86 

39. Deteriorated First Floor Porch Deck, 1984 86 

40. Temporary Bracing for Southwest Corner Porch Column, 1984 88 

41. Deteriorated Skirting Under Rotted Porch Deck, 1984 88 

42. Second Floor Porch Railing, 1984 88 

43. Northwest Corner of Crook House Porch, 1984 89 

44. Bevel Edge Shiplap Siding and Tl-11 Skirting, 1984 89 

45. Gable Roof on East Side of Crook House, 1984 91 

46. Crook House Addition, 1984 91 

47. Chimney on Unfinished West Wall 

of Bedroom #3 in Crook House, 1984 93 

48. Bedroom #4 of Crook House, 1984 93 

49. Unfinished Interior of Bedroom #4, 1984 95 



50. Crook House Staircase, 1984 95 

51. First Floor Plan, Crook House 97 

52. Second Floor Plan, Crook House 100 

53. Recommended Site Development 116 

54. Recommended Building Development, First Floor 120 

55. Recommended Building Development, Second Floor 121 

56. General Rehabilitation Notes, First Floor 136 

57. General Rehabilitation Notes, Second Floor 137 



Introduction 

This Historic Structures Report will be the basis for the preparation 
of construction documents and compliance requirements for the adaptive 
re-use of the Crook House. Since the facility appears to qualify for the 
National Register of Historic Places, special consideration must be given 
to any proposed work at the site in order to protect historically 
significant elements. This report defines these elements and provides 
recommendations for their preservation. The report outlines building and 
site deficiencies that must be addressed as part of the total 
rehabilitation project, and provides recommendations for correcting these 
deficiencies. The report and accompanying drawings and notes have been 
prepared to aid professionals involved in immediate and future planning at 
the house, and to serve as a record documentation of the facility. 

This report was prepared by the Cultural Resources Division, Pacific 
Northwest Region, National Park Service; information was provided by San 

1 



Juan Island National Historical Park staff and planning personnel from 
the Pacific Northwest Region of the National Park Service. 



PART ONE 
BACKGROUND 




Administrative Data 



List of Classified Structures 

Crook Farm Group: Crook House, LCS #101-1 

Management Category C: Structures that may be preserved and maintained 
Proposed Use: Adaptive re-use--visitor information center, exhibit space, 
park staff office and curatorial storage 

Planning Documents 

Documents proposing treatment and use of the structure, cooperative 
agreements, and other documents bearing on the proposed management, 
furnishing, and use of the structure. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Report on San 
Juan Island Investigation , by E. Davidson, R. Bond, J. Lewis, 1937. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. San Juan Island 
National Historical Park, Washington: A Proposal , by Charles Brown, John 
Doerr, John Hussey, et. al. San Francisco: Western Regional Office, 
National Park Service, March, 1964. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. San Juan Island 
National Historical Park, Washington: A Master Plan , by Richard W. 
Barnett, et. al. San Francisco: San Francisco Service Center, National 
Park Service, 1968. 



U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Interpretive 
Prospectus, San Juan Island National Historical Park , 1971. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Historic 
Resource Study, San Juan Island National Historical Park, Washington , by 
Erwin Thompson. Denver, Colorado: Denver Service Center, National Park 
Service, 1972. 



U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Classified 
Structure Field Inventory Re 
Park, by Harold LaFleur, 197 



Structure Field Inventory Report, San Juan Island National Historical 



U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Statement for 
Management, San Juan Island National Historical Park, Washington . 
Seattle, Washington: Pacific Northwest Regional Office, National Park 
Service, 1976. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Environmental 
Assessment: Proposed General Management Plan, San Juan Island National 
Historical Park . Seattle, Washington: Pacific Northwest Regional 
Office, National Park Service, 1977. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. General 
Management Plan, San Juan Island National Historical Park, Washington , by 
Don Campbell, et. al . T979T 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Resource 
Management Plan and Environmental Assessment, Revision of 1979 General 
Management Plan, San Juan Island National Historical Park . Seattle, 
Washington: Pacific Northwest Regional Office, National Park Service, 
1982. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Crook House 
Adaptive Use, Development/Study Package Proposal, San Juan Island 
National Park, Washington, Form 10-238 , by Frank Hastings. San Juan 
Island, Washington: San Juan Island National Historical Park, National 
Park Service, 1984. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. San Juan Island 
National Historical Park Interpretive Prospectus . Harpers Ferry, West 
Virginia: Harpers Ferry Center, National Park Service, 1984. 



Justification of Proposed Treatment 

With reference to applicable criteria in National Park Service 
"Management Policies," NPS-28, "Cultural Resource Management Guidelines," 
and the characteristics and limitations of the resource. 



The Development/Study Package Proposal, "Crook House Adaptive Use," 
NPS form 10-238 dated February 1984, proposes an adaptive rehabilitation 
of the Crook House to serve as a central point for visitors to English 
Camp. The 1984 Interpretive Prospectus recommends the adaptive re-use of 
the Crook House, in its present location, as the English Camp visitor 
contact facility, including an information lobby, exhibit area, and 
curatorial storage. This proposal is a compatible function for the 
building, and enhances its continuing presence in the park, thus 
preserving a structure believed to be eligible for the National Register 
of Historic Places and of significance to the local community. 

Since it is believed the Crook House qualifies for the National 
Register, any proposed work at the facility will require compliance with 
applicable regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation 
Act of 1966, as amended. Under Section 106 of this Act, comments of the 
Washington State Historic Preservation Officer and the Advisory Council 
on Historic Preservation must be sought before carrying out any work 
affecting the facility's historic resources. Compliance with procedures 
established by NPS-28, "Cultural Resource Management Guidelines," is also 
required. In addition, all work must meet the standards established by 
the Life Safety Code as contained in sub-part E of 29 CFR 1910. 

Recommended Changes in Proposed Treatment and Use of the Structure 

Based on the degree of documentary physical evidence, the condition 

of the structure and other professional findings in the completed 

analysis section: 

Analysis of the structure under consideration, as documented in this 

report, supports rehabilitation of the facility. Structural 

7 



rehabilitation is required to correct water and moisture damage occuring 
at the porch, roof, and eaves. Electrical and mechanical equipment needs 
updating to meet code requirements, and thermal and moisture protection 
need to be installed. Other deficiencies are discussed in the report. 

It is necessary to design building improvements meeting the 
functional requirements necessary for safe public use. Further, it is 
important to repair or replace in-kind historic architectural features to 
maintain historical integrity of the facility. 

Recommendations for Documentation 

Recommendations for the documentation, cataloging, conservation and 
storage of any objects, documents, records, photographs, negatives, and 
tapes collected or produced as a result of this study: 

This document will be sent to all parties on the Standard 
Distribution List of the Cultural Resources Division of the Pacific 
Northwest Regional Office of the National Park Service (Appendix E). 

All material and documents produced as a result of this report will 
be kept in an archival depository at the University of Washington, 
Seattle, Washington. In addition, copies of all documentation will be 
transmitted to the Historic American Buildings Survey collections at the 
Library of Congress. 



Geographic and Natural Setting 

The San Juan Gulf Islands archipelago is located in the confluence 
of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Strait of Georgia, midway between 
Seattle, Washington, and Victoria, British Columbia. Visible tops of 
submerged mountains, the 172 islands of the chain vary in size and 
terrain, from small, barren outcrops to forested and cultivated islands 
up to fifty-six square miles in size. Situated in the rainshadow of the 
Olympic Peninsula and Vancouver Island, the archipelago's average annual 
rainfall is less than the region's as a whole, generally fifteen to 
twenty-nine inches per year. Temperatures are moderate, with foggy, warm 
summers and cool winters. The islands e^re accessible only by air and 
water. 

San Juan Island National Historical Park encompasses two different 
environs on opposite ends of San Juan Island--the second largest island 
of the San Juan chain. The park covers 1,752 acres, with 1,223 acres 

9 




a. 
< 



< 

O 

o 

UJ 



oi 



in 




San Juan Island National Historical Park 



VICINITY MAP 



FIGURE 3 



MILES 

12 3 4 





within American Camp on the southern, windswept end of the island, and 
529 acres in English Camp, eight miles northwest of Friday Harbor on the 
tree-sheltered cove of Garrison Bay. The Crook House is located on a 
knoll overlooking the remains of the British garrison, and the bay 
beyond. In addition to the natural edge formed by Garrison and Wescott 
bays on the west, English Camp's boundaries are roughly marked by Bell 
Point to the north, and the 650-foot Young Hill on the east. The 
southern boundary extends almost due east from the southernmost end of 
Garrison Bay. Vehicular access is via a paved county road. 

San Juan Island is 14 1/2 miles long and 6 1/2 miles across at its 
widest point. Like others in the group, this island consists of 
metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, with glacial deposits from at least two 
advances. The north end, where the Crook House is located, is covered 
with glacial drift, and the south end, the site of American Camp, is 
covered with glacial till. The gently sloping terrain of the island is 
interrupted by Mount Dallas at 1,036 feet; Mount Finlayson, a 290-foot 
gravel morrain situated on the wind-swept south, and Young Hill, which 
rises 650 feet above the sea level on the northwest. Rock, gravel, and 
silt loam cover most of the area, with occasional rock outcrops. 

English Camp is situated in a "dry belt" on the island, with an 
average rainfall of about twenty-five inches per year, which creates a 
set of micro-environments different from those in topographically similar 
areas nearby. The northern two-thirds of the island is heavily forested 
with second-growth Douglas fir, western red cedar, and other conifers and 
various deciduous trees, including red alder and bigleaf maple. Logging 
and major burns in the latter half of the nineteenth and early part of 
the twentieth centuries have virtually eliminated old-growth forest. The 

12 



forest understory species include snowberry, wild rose, salal and 
hawthorn. Grasses and sedges grow in small meadows and grasslands in 
and around the camp. 

Clams and other bivalves live in mud and gravel flats along Garrison 
Bay; migratory water fowl stop in salt water marshes in the region; 
flounder and dogfish occupy eel grass areas in the vicinity; and sea 
mammals feed on salmon near the bay reefs. Black tailed deer and 
raccoons live in the English Camp area forests, and the endangered bald 
eagle is one of some half-dozen raptor species that breed on the island. 
In the 1880s European rabbits were released on the islands by settlers, 
ultimately causing a conspicuous impact on vegetation and soils; in 1980 
the rabbit population began a precipitous decline for reasons still not 
entirely clear. Wild turkeys were introduced to the island in the early 
1970s. 



13 



PART TWO 
HISTORY 




Context 



The cove formed by Garrison Bay on the northeast end of San Juan 
Island has been the site of human habitation for thousands of years. 
Archeological excavations have unearthed prehistoric artifacts, 
structures, and remains associated with Native American cultures 
extending back as far as 1300 B.C., and origin myths of several Puget 
Sound tribes place their source as a people in the cove area. Remains of 
a longhouse attest to the cove's location as a winter village, and tools 
and other artifacts provide evidence characteristic of a maritime 
economy. Within the historic period, the Lummi , part of a larger 
cultural group of Sound Indians, the Salish, are most frequently 
connected to the site. In 1858 geologist George Gibbs noted ". . . the 
whole inside of North Eastern part of San Juan formerly belonged to a 
tribe kindered to the Lummies and now extinct." 

17 



As part of that vast territory known as Oregon Country, the San Juan 
Islands came under the dominion of the powerful Hudson's Bay Company, 
which grew rapidly after its union with its former competitor, the North 
West Company, in 1821. In July 1845, two years after establishing Fort 
Victoria on Vancouver Island, Hudson's Bay officials formally took 
possession of San Juan. In the early 1850s the company established a 
seasonal fishing station on the island, and in 1853 Charles Griffin was 
sent to establish a permanent sheep farm which he called Bellevue. 

After the War of 1812, the question of British and American hegemony 
in the Pacific Northwest became the subject of negotiations between the 
two powers. In 1818 the countries agreed that the region west of the 
Rocky Mountains was to be "free and open" for a ten-year period, allowing 
joint access and use of the lands. Negotiations over sovereignty of the 
area continued for more than twenty years, while the "joint occupancy" 
agreement was extended indefinitely. In the meantime, the Hudson's Bay 
Company continued to establish posts and farms, even as American 
missionaries, traders, and settlers increased their presence in the 
region. In 1846 Great Britain and the United States settled on the 49th 
North Parallel as the western boundary between Canada and the U.S.: all 
of Vancouver Island would remain British, and the boundary between it and 
the mainland would be "the middle of the channel which separates the 
continent from Vancouver's Island. "^ 



'Erwin Thompson, Historic Resource Study: San Juan Island National 
Historic Park, Washington (Denver Service Center: National Park Service, 
U. S. Department of the Interior, 1972), p. 13. Gibbs was making a 
geological reconnaissance of San Juan Island as part of his duties on the 
American Boundary Commission. 

2 Ibid., p.l. 

IS 




1M 



The question of which of two major channels--Canal de Haro or 
Rosario--was "the" channel to which the treaty referred was disputed for 
over twenty-five years. Between these two straits were the San Juan 
Islands. 

By the early 1850s the British colonial government, through the 
Hudson's Bay Company, and the newly-established U.S. Territory of 
Washington both laid claim to the islands. In 1854 Colonel Isaac Ebey, 
the U.S. Collector of Customs for the Puget Sound area, sent Henry Webber 
to the San Juan Island to inventory and collect taxes on the Company's 
sheep, the first of three U.S. county officials to take up residence on 
the island that yedr. 

Despite disputes over taxes, British and Americans co-existed fairly 
peacefully on the island, cooperating during skirmishes with Indians who 
periodically sent raiding parties south from British Columbia. In 1856 
the United States and Great Britain appointed a boundary commission to 
survey the 49th Parallel and to attempt to find a solution to the water 
boundary issue. The survey progressed throughout 1857, although the 
commission was deadlocked on the water boundary issue. 

News of the discovery of gold on Canada's Fraser River in 1857 
brought an influx of adventurers, primarily American, to the north 
boundary area. In 1859 a group hired a surveyor to go to San Juan to lay 
out claims, and by June of that year about twenty-five Americans were 
living on the island. On June 15 Lyman Cutler, whose claim lay closest 
to the Hudson's Bay Company farm, Bellevue, shot and killed a Company pig 
rooting in his potato patch. 3 

3 Ibid., p. 14. 

20 



Disagreement between the British and American authorities over the 
pig's replacement costs, and exaggerated accounts of the attendant 
incidents aggravated American hostilities towards the British. 
Ostensibly in response to a petition from settlers on the island asking 
for protection from Indians, Brigadier General William Harney, commanding 
general of the U.S. Army's Department of Oregon, ordered American troops 
to the island. They landed on the south end of San Juan Island on July 
27, 1859. In response, the British sent three naval ships to Griffin 
Bay, and formal protests and charges were exchanged. An uneasy peace, 
charged with tension, was maintained while communications between 
Victoria and London, Washington Territory and Washington, D.C., and San 
Juan Island and Victoria made their way through official channels. 
President James Buchanan dispatched General Winfield Scott to resolve the 
crisis. Scott arrived in Fort Vancouver on October 20, 1857, and 
negotiated a settlement with Governor James Douglas of British Columbia 
by which the island would be jointly occupied by British and American 
troops--100 troops from each nation--to protect the nationals of both 
countries. In March of 1860 the British Royal Marines landed on the 
shore of Garrison Bay under the command of Captain George Bazalgette. 
They were to stay on the island until November 2, 1872, almost a month to 
the day after Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany, the arbiter of the boundary 
dispute, awarded the San Juan Islands to the United States. 

English Camp Structures 

Second Lieutenant Fred Epstein, head of the American troops sent to 
guard the abandoned English Camp buildings in 1872, prepared a report on 
seventeen buildings he received. His superior, First Lieutenant James 

21 



Haughey, wrote a more detailed report which he forwarded to the 
Department of the Columbia in early December. In January of 1875, A. E. 
Alden was appointed master agent in charge of both posts, and he listed 
the structures for which he had become caretaker. The 1874 survey by 
Major Micheler included a map of the camp, which showed twenty-seven 
structures. 

The structures were arrayed in a series of somewhat axial 
relationships to the bay and the topography of the cove. Apparently the 
first structure built was a frame storehouse for which the materials were 
requisitioned before the Marines left for the island in March of 1860. 
With the exception of the log blockhouse or guardhouse on the shore of 
Garrison Bay, most structures appear to have been frame buildings with 
horizontal board siding, some with paneled doors and six-over-six 
windows. Other documented pre-1868 buildings included a storehouse, 
surgeon's quarters, officers' mess, barracks, single subaltern's 
quarters, a stable and storehouse, and dock structures. 

After the arrival of a new garrison commander, Captain William 
Delacombe, in June 1867, a new cottage for the commanding officer and his 
family was built. A new house was also constructed for the married 
subaltern, and repairs and alterations were made to the single 
subaltern's house, the barracks, storehouse, and guardhouse. Other 
buildings on the site included wash and bath houses, a blacksmith shop, 
an officers' mess, a messhouse, a sawmill, two sentry boxes, a school and 
library, and several additional structures, including a formal garden and 



ubid., pp. 199-240. Detailed descriptions of the structures are 
located in Chapter 6; historic photographs, collection of American Camp 
files, San Juan Island National Historical Park. 

22 



flagstaff. A number of accounts by nineteenth-century visitors to the 
camp noted the neatness and cleanliness of the garrison and the beauty of 
the setting. 

Civilian Settlement 

Approximately twenty-five people were living on the island when 
American troops landed in 1859, most of them "squatting" near the south 
end of the island. In August of 1859 The British Colonist , a Victoria 

newspaper, noted that "some six American squatters" were living on the 

5 
north end of the island. During the 1860s, the civilian population 

grew slowly, comprised mostly of men who either established preemptive 

homestead claims or who lived in San Juan Village, located near the 

Hudson's Bay Company wharf. A number of these were would-be miners, 

returned from the Fraser River gold fields. Until the middle of the 

decade, civil-military relations were strained, primarily in the American 

Camp vicinity where certain settlers and entrepreneurs persisted in 

challenging American military authority, including attempts to regulate 

their sale of liquor to soldiers and Indians. In 1868 the U.S. District 

Court in Port Townsend settled the issue, determining that San Juan 

Island was under military rule. The English Camp commanders seem to have 

enjoyed relatively undisputed control of civilian affairs of citizens 

claiming British protection. Issues involving citizens of both 

nationalities were handled jointly by American and British military 

authorities . 



^Thompson, Historic Resource Study , p. 226. 



23 



Throughout the 1860s, excursionists from Victoria visited the 
island, joining in both American and British holiday celebrations 
sponsored by the garrisons: picnics, suppers and dances, and horseraces 
were part of the social activities of the island during the joint 
occupation. Prior to the boundary decision, settlers were in the unique 
position of not having to pay taxes or other property assessments. 

One hundred and eighty-four adult males lived in the islands in 
1870, excluding the military garrisons, according to the 1870 census; 
ninety-six of these lived on San Juan. Approximately twice as many 
British-born settlers claimed American citizenship as those who did not. 
Sheep raising and farming were accounted successful activities in an 1876 
report. Just prior to British withdrawal in 1872, forty-six British 
settlers on the island had submitted a petition requesting the English 
Camp commander to stay on San Juan and protect their interests. But by 
1873 a special U.S. commissioner sent to settle outstanding British 

o 

claims reported he found all had become American citizens. 

In 1874 the island was surveyed by the Surveyor General's office in 
Olympia, Washington, after which settlers filed formal claims to the land 
on San Juan. English Camp, surveyed in the fall, fell in Sections 25 and 
26 of Township 36 North, Range 4 West. The survey field notes indicate 
the camp was still owned by the United States, and the plat map noted the 



6 Ibid., p. 105. 

'Elwood, Evans, Washington Territory: Her Past, Her Present and 
the Elements of Wealth Which Ensure Her Future (Olympia, WA: C.B. Bagley, 
1877; reprint ed., Seattle, WA: Shorey Book Store, 1966), passim; Keith 
Murray, The Pig War (Tacoma: Washington State Historical Society, April 
1968), p. 67; Thompson, Historic Resource Study , pp. 195-196. 

^Thompson, Historic Resource Study , p. 196. 

24 



location of the English Garrison. The closest farms to the camp belonged 
to August Hoffmeister, the past's former sutler, and to an R. Pritchard. 
In January of 1876, English-born William Crook purchased the land and 
structures of English Camp. 

Ten years later, San Juan Island had a population of 536: 302 men 
and 234 women. Most settlers were farmers, but a large number of men 
described themselves as fishermen and laborers. Many settlers were born 
in Great Britain, Canada or the United States, but the island also had a 

fairly high proportion of settlers born in other European countries. 

g 
One-third of the total archipelago's population was American Indian. 

San Juan Village, which grew from a small collection of tents near 
American Camp on the south end of San Juan Island, was the hub of island 
life for a few short decades. After the area of Friday Harbor was 
designated the new county seat in the early 1870s, the village was 
abandoned, and in 1890 the few remaining buildings on the site burned. 
By 1900 Friday Harbor, the new island center, was a thriving village with 
a population of between three and four hundred, a salmon cannery, wharves 
and warehouses, and a telephone system. 

At the turn of the century three thousand people lived on the 
islands. Agriculture and fishing were primary industries, and San Juan 
Island boasted a lime manufacturing plant at Roche Harbor, north of 
English Camp. Steamers connected the islands to the mainland. 



^Washington, Washington Territorial Auditor's Office, Census Roll , 
1885. 



25 




-o 

c c 

O TO 



i— TO 
•i- =3 

4-> TO 
OO OO 
O 

E " 

s- c 

CD O 

C^ ■<- 

a. +-> 

CD 

QJ r— 
-C i — 

+J o 
o 



a> +-> 

00 <+- 

3 CD 

o <— 

QJ 

00 JZ 

- +-> 

C 

•i- O 
TO 4-J 
+-> 

Q- « 
TO 4-> 

o •<- 

x) 2 
qj o 

+-> i— 
=3 qj 

CL _Q 
00 
•i— oo 

-O -r- 

d) QJ 

-C oo 



O *-~* 
r-~ oo 
00 - 
. — C 

s_ 

• QJ 

(T3 -M 

O i — 

TO 

« -Q 
CL 13 
E OO 

TO 

C_J 

00 

x: - 

00 4-> 
•r- C 

i— TO 

cn c 

c a> • 

uj +-> J^. 

13 S- 

4- CU TO 

o -i- c^ 

_J 
en >— 

^ QJ TO 

•r- -C U 

> +-> -I- 

TO S- 

i- -a o 

c: to oo 
UJ •«- 

4-> 
LD JC i— 
CD TO 

UJ •<- C 

a: s- o 

=D t- 

O (D -P 

i— i _C TO 

U_ -M 2T 



26 



The Crook Family 



William Crook purchased the land on which the English Camp 
structures stood on January 5, 1876. He and his young family had finally 
reached the end of a long cross-country journey via ox-drawn wagon, which 
had lasted at least four years. A house carpenter by training, Crook was 
looking for land to settle, apparently lured west by accounts of the 
Puget Sound area. 

Family tradition claims Crook arrived in the United States in 1856, 
when he landed in New Orleans. He was born in Yorkshire, England on 



1 Interview with Rhoda Crook Anderson by Carl Stoddard, Tape in 
Collection of San Juan Island National Historical Park, 18 February 1970; 
interview with Mary Crook Davis by Newland, Washington Emergency Relief 
Administration, Everett, Washington, xeroxed notes in Collection of San 
Juan Island National Historical Park, 27 July 1936. Both of Crook's 
daughters remarked on their father's desire to settle in Puget Sound. 
Rhoda claimed her father had read about Puget Sound before arriving in 
America. Mary said her father wanted to locate next to salt water, and 
that he refused to stop traveling until the family reached the coast. 

27 



November 27, 1837, the son of James and Mary Crook. James, too, was a 
carpenter and a draftsman of no little skill. It is unclear whether 
William's parents accompanied him on his voyage to the United States, but 
there is no doubt his father was in North America by the 1860s, drafting 

and perhaps designing structures in Ontario, Canada. A brother, John, 

2 
may have emigrated with the family. 

By 1867 William and James were in Ontario, where James designed at 

least part of the Presbyterian Church in Seaforth. It is most likely 

that there William met his future wife, Mary Forrest, a Scottish 

immigrant born in 1835. Sometime in the late 1860s, probably 1869, 

William and Mary began their trek west. James stayed in Ontario until at 

least 1871. One family member said William was hired to build houses in 

various places as the Crooks traveled west, which may account for the 

length of time it took them to reach Washington. The Crooks' first 

daughter, Mary, was born in Fremont, Nebraska Territory, on June 6, 

1871. After her birth the Crooks presumably picked up the Oregon Trail 

west of Fremont, and traveled on it as far as Fort Bridger, Wyoming. For 

some reason, rather than heading north on the trail through Idaho, the 

family continued west to the town of Evanston, Wyoming, where a second 

child, James, was born on September 29, 1873. The family apparently 



^William Filbey and Mary K. Meyer, eds., Passenger and Immigration 
Lists Index , Vol. 1, A-G, (Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Co., 1981). 
Secondary accounts of Crook's arrival in the U.S. say he was sixteen 
years old when he landed in 1856: since his birth date is verifiably 
1837, either the date of his arrival or his reported age upon arrival is 
wrong. Since the 1900 census reports his date of arrival as 1856, most 
likely his age was reported erroneously. There are no reported records 
of passengers from Great Britain--or any other European country—arriving 
in New Orleans in the 1850s. However, a William, John, and James Crook 
all participated in the Aliens Declaration of Intention and Oath of 
Allegiance in 1860 in the Superior Court of Pennsylvania. 

28 



rejoined the primary route of the Oregon Trail through Idaho and then the 

3 
secondary route to Walla Walla, Washington. 

According to the Crooks' youngest daughter, Rhoda, her father first 

heard of English Camp from a Major Blake, whom she said the family met on 

the Oregon Trail. In this story, Blake told Crook to travel to Olympia 

and inquire about routes to the San Juan Islands. Rhoda said the family 

arrived on San Juan Island--via a schooner from 01ympia--in 1874. In 

1936 daughter Mary, then in late middle age, claimed the family followed 

the Oregon Trail to Olympia, Washington, and then took a schooner to 

American Camp on San Juan Island, arriving in 1876. The son, James, said 

he was two years old when the family arrived on the island, making the 

4 
date late in 1875. 

In November of 1875 Crook and his family settled on the English Camp 

site, with the intent to claim the land under the homestead land laws. 

According to Rhoda, they found the buildings in "perfect condition." 

Rhoda also said a caretaker on the property—possibly Alden—told Crook 

he could not buy the land because it belonged to the government, but her 

father, she said, went to Olympia and was told by an official there that 

he could file a homestead claim and take possession. Possession 

evidently referred to the land, and not the buildings, because on 



^Drawings of "Additions to Moorehouses Dwelling, Goderich, 
Canada," dates 1871 and signed by "J. Crook, arch.," are in the 
collection of San Juan Island National Historical Park; Information on 
birth dates and locations are taken from a list of family births and 
deaths in an autograph album belonging to James Crook (the son), dated 
1888, in the collection of San Juan Island National Historical Park; the 
Walla Walla route was described by Rhoda Crook Anderson in the interview 
by Stoddard, 18 February 1970. 

^Rhoda Crook Anderson interview by Stoddard, 18 February 1970; 
Mary Crook Davis interview by Newland, 27 July 1936; Thompson, Historic 
Resource Study , p. 209. 

29 



November 24, 1875, the buildings formerly occupied by the British troops 
were auctioned by the Office of the Chief Quartermaster of the Department 
of the Columbia. A total of ". . . in all about 15 buildings" were 
advertised for auction, and records have survived on the sale of two of 
them--the Captain's house and the Subaltern's house, both of which were 
purchased by a John Izett for a Henry Webster. Crook and a number of 
other San Juan Islanders were present at the sale, including a Major E.W. 
Blake. 5 

Blake said in a later law suit over the Captain's and Subaltern's 
houses, involving Crook and Webster, that he had ". . . aided Mr. Crook 
in getting there to English Camp and showed him the place, and I had 
intended to take the place myself as a homestead, but I gave way and 
permitted him and his family to take the place." In exchange for this 
aid and "consideration," Mr. Blake understood that he was to purchase and 
"have the Captain's and Lieutenant's quarters and the hill on which they 
were situated . . . about five acres was mentioned and estimated as the 
area to be included." Crook, according to Blake, was under obligation to 
him. In Crook's later testimony during the same hearing, he agreed that 
Major Blake was to buy the buildings "as his own," but stated "There was 
no amount of land ever mentioned that Major Blake was to have title 
to." 7 



^Washington, Jefferson County Clerk Third Territorial District 
Court, Territorial Case File, File #195, Findings of Referee , 30 June, 
1879. Washington State Archives Regional Center, Bellingham, 
Washington. File 195, Series 2, Box 3. 

^Ibid., Evidence Taken by Referee , p. 16. 

7 Ibi d . , pp. 12, 16, 17, 39. 



30 



There are no known records showing the disposition of the other 
buildings auctioned that day, nor any indication whether Crook bid on and 
purchased the extant bui ldings--the log blockhouse, the storehouse, or 
the barracks--or any others that are seen in historic photos dating from 
the Crook period. The hospital building, now restored at English Camp, 
was apparently purchased and later moved to Peter Lawson's farm, about 
three miles from the camp site. Crook may have purchased the other 
buildings, or may have assumed ownership because no one else bid on 
them. On January 6, 1876, Crook filed his application to enter Sections 
25 and 26 as his homestead under the Homestead Law at the U. S. District 
Land Office at Olympia, Washington Territory. 

At the time of the auction the Crooks were living on the land, but 
it is not clear which building--if any--they first occupied. In 1956 son 
Jim told an interviewer the family first lived in the barracks building, 
but daughter Rhoda said the family first lived in the "Lieutenant's 
house," which is where she was born on February 29, 1880. 

Testimony in the 1879 lawsuit indicates the Crooks took possession 
of and lived in the disputed Lieutenant's (Subaltern's) house beginning 
September 1, 1878. It is possible, then, that the family first lived in 
a barracks building: there were two extant in 1875, both in "fair 
condition," although only one survives today. The family most likely 
moved directly from the barracks into the Lieutenant's house, located on 
a terrace east and slightly south of the formal gardens. The house had 
been built in 1867, a 36-by-32-foot frame building with six rooms, a 
kitchen, and a pantry. 8 



^Frank Lynch, "The Old Blockhouse at English Camp," Seattle Post 
Intelligencer, 29 August 1956, n.p.; Thompson, Historic Resource Study , 

p. 217. 

31 



The move coincides to the day with the event that sparked the 
lawsuit--an attempt by Webster to sell the Captain's house and the 
Lieutenant's house to a Mr. Timothy Flynn. Crook refused to allow Flynn 
and Webster's lawyer possession of the house. On March 4, 1879, Crook, 
Webster, and their attorneys went to court in Port Townsend. The essence 
of the suit was Crook's refusal to acknowledge Webster's ownership of the 
two structures. He agreed Webster had purchased the buildings during the 
auction—or rather, he agreed that Webster's agent, John Izett, had 
purchased the buildings. However, he claimed, the terms of the sale for 
all the buildings auctioned required their removal from his land within 
thirty--l ater sixty—days, and that failure to remove the structures 
meant he gained possession of them. In March of 1878 Crook told Webster 
to remove the buildings within sixty days or he would claim them: Webster 
did not respond until September, when he told Flynn he would sell him the 
buildings for $500. The Crooks moved into the building the same day 
Webster apparently struck the bargain with Flynn. Because Crook had 
agreed to maintain the buildings for a period of months, for which he was 
partially paid, and because of conflicting testimony and 
misunderstandings, and Webster's claim of a loss of $500, the case was 
brought to court. Ultimately, the referee in the matter, C. H. Hanford, 
found in favor of Crook. Webster's lawyers appealed. The final decree 

in the matter, filed September 15, 1879, awarded Webster a sum of $240. 

9 
Crook retained title to the houses. 

According to Rhoda, the family later moved into the "library" 

building, apparently located on the upper terrace, south of the 



^Third Territorial District Court, File #195, passii 

32 



"blacksmith's shop" whose masonry ruin is extant. Since the building is 
no longer there, and records are not clear, it is only possible to state 
that the building may have been a 36-by-20-foot structure, third to the 
west of a row of four structures which ran on a westerly axis on the 
uppermost terrace where the Crook house now sits. Rhoda said the family 
later moved into the barracks building--the one still extant--which Crook 
"fixed up" by building a new fireplace and moving or adding interior 
walls to create a living room. Evidence found prior to reconstruction of 
the building supports her claim of alterations to the structure. 

Mary Crook Davis, four or five years old when the family arrived on 
San Juan Island, remembered that most settlers lived in two-room log 
structures, furnished with hand-made items. Most people, she said, 
traded produce and game for manufactured items, such as cloth. Food 
included island game, particularly deer, ducks and geese. A trip to the 
nearest store--first San Juan Village, and later, Friday Harbor, was an 
all-day affair via wagon or horseback. Her father, she said, planted 
grain in the fields cleared by the Marines, and fruit trees—primarily 
cherries and apples — in the old Marine parade ground. 

In 1880 San Juan County assessed William for $990 worth of personal 
property, but no assessment was levied on his land for improvements. In 
1883--the year his patent was recorded for Lot 1 and the Southwest 
quarter of the Northwest quarter of Section 25, and Lots 1, 11, 12 and 13 
of Section 26 in Township 36 North, Range 4 West--a total of 161 85/100 



'°Rhoda Crook Anderson interview by Stoddard, 18 February 1970; A. 
Lewis Koue and Erwin Thompson, English Camp: San Juan Island National 
Historical Park; Historic Structures Report, Part 1 (Washington, D.C.: 
National Park Service, Division of History, 1969), pp. 21-23. 

''Mary Crook Davis interview by Newland, 27 July 1936. 

33 



acres--he was paying taxes on $250 worth of land, $300 worth of 

improvements, and $189 of personal property. Ten acres of the 161 were 

12 
recorded as "improved." 

By 1880, when the Crooks' third and final child, Rhoda, was born, 

William's father, James, had arrived on San Juan and was living next door 

to the family. There is no record of which structure he lived in, nor do 

recorded interviews with the family mention him. Rhoda, in later years, 

mentioned her Uncle John, saying he was a bachelor who lived in the 

Captain's house and arrived "years" after her father came to the island, 

but her grandfather is not mentioned. James, whose wife, Mary, had died 

in 1868, homesteaded the east half of the Northwest quarter of Section 

25, a total of 80 acres, adjoining his son's claim. His patent was 

recorded in May 1885. Some long-time residents claim William and his 

brother, John, made elaborately carved furniture for the house, and also 

13 
built caskets for sale to island residents. 

In 1880 William Crook still identified himself as a house carpenter, 

and his daughter, Rhoda, claimed he ". . . didn't care much for 

farming . . ." and pursued his trade by building "most of the" houses on 

San Juan. While this is possible, it seems full-time homesteading would 

have left little time for carpentry beyond the scattered structures he 

erected on his own homestead. Also, daughter Mary indicated her father 

gave up carpentry for farming and raising fruit and grain. 



^ San Juan County Real Property Assessment and Tax Rolls 
(Washington: Assessor's Office, San Juan County, 1881, 1882, 1883). 
Washington State Archives Regional Center, Bellingham, Washington. 

^U.S., Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, Tenth Census of 
Population (1880); interview with Etta Egeland by Patricia Erigero, 27 
June 1984. Some of the furniture is now in possession of the San Juan 
County Historical Society. 

.'VI 



On February 14, 1889, James Crook died intestate. William inherited 
his eighty acres, which included fencing, valued at $250, and several 
buildings, valued at $75. In 1892 the family had enough money to loan 
$100 to neighbors, secured by land, and in conjunction with a neighbor in 
1895, loaned $1,250 to another neighbor, again secured by land on the 
island. Also in 1895, William and Mary sold Lot 1 of Section 26, a total 
of 25 acres. 

In 1895 William was assessed for a total of 152.75 acres in Section 
25, and 41 acres in Section 26: Lot 3 in Section 26, consisting of 3 
acres—the site of English Camp proper—was the only lot listing assessed 
improvements, valued at $400. According to daughter Rhoda, Crook had 
made use of most of the buildings on the site. She claimed her father 
used both the blacksmith shop and the sawpit, situated near the 
"library". She also indicated the blockhouse was used by the family for 
storage, and that her father used the storehouse (commissary) as a shop 
for building boats. She stated that he tore down the first barracks 
building, and used the Captain's house, either during or after her uncle 
John's stay there, as a metal shop. The Captain's house burned down in 
1894, and Rhoda claimed the Lieutenant's house was also demolished by 
fire, which must have occurred after her birth there in 1880. She also 
noted her father was responsible for building the picket fences that 
enclosed fields and orchards on the site. 

In 1897 Mary, the eldest daughter, married Herbert H. Davis, whose 
family had settled on Lopez Island in the San Juans in the early 1870s. 



'^ Record of Mortgages (Washington: Auditor's Office, San Juan 
County); Record of Ueeds~ TWashington: Auditor's Office, San Juan County); 
Probate Records (Washington: Auditor's Office, San Juan County, 1891), 
Washington State Archives Regional Center, Bellingham, Washington. 



35 



Davis, born in Michigan, made his living operating a series of steamers 
and tugboats in the islands, including the tug "Roche Harbor," which was 
owned by Roche Harbor Limeworks. The Davises lived with her parents 
after their marriage, and in 1900 Davis took advantage of the dock 
facilities at English Camp to rebuild one of his wrecked steamers, The 
Pansy , which, with a new hull, was rechristened Mary D . Soon after the 
turn of the century Rhoda married Fred Anderson, a chief engineer on the 
Lydia Thompson , a mailboat operating on the Sound, and moved first to 
Fairbanks, Alaska, and then to the mainland of Washington, where she 
lived for over thirty years with her husband, who operated a steamer in 

the Sound. James, the son, never married. On October 23, 1899, 

15 
William's wife, Mary, died. 

In 1900 William purchased Lots 14 and 15 of Section 26, northwest of 
English Camp. At the time the tax assessor recorded his ownership of two 
horses, two cows, twenty sheep, a wagon, and $40 worth of furniture. 
However, a daybook kept for the farm indicates he owned sixty-three ewes 
and two rams in 1899. The family sold eggs, chickens, sheep, wool, and 
fruit--in August 1899 they sold the Wirth store in Friday Harbor over 500 
pounds of cherries, the price of which was applied to future grocery 
purchases. In the 1900 census William referred to himself as a farmer, 
not a house carpenter. On August 13, 1901, William died of a heart 
attack while doing chores near his barn. In addition to his livestock 
and land, he left some farm machinery to his children. 

At the time of his father's death, Jim Crook was in his late 
twenties, working as a laborer on the farm. He had been educated on the 



'^Mary Crook Davis interview by Newland, 22 July 1936; San Juan 
Islander , 25 January 1900, p. 3, and 1 March 1900, p. 3. 

36 




FIGURE 6 Mary Crook Davis, Jim Crook and Rhoda Crook Anderson, ca. 1900 
Collection, San Juan Island National Historical Park. 















FIGURE 7 Carding machine built by Jim Crook, just prior to its removal to 
the San Juan County Historical Society. Collection, San Juan Island Na- 
tional Historical Park. 

37 



island, had lived there since he was two years old, and apparently only 
made occasional trips to the mainland. All three children were joint 
heirs to William's estate, which was settled in 1902, although in 1904 

Rhoda and Mary signed a quit-claim deed to all the property in favor of 

,. 16 
Jim. 

In 1900 Jim began construction of a two-story frame house, located 
on a knoll overlooking the camp and Garrison Bay. why, after twenty plus 
years of living in camp structures, a new house was built is something of 
a mystery. One account claims Jim Crook "helped" his brother-in-law, 
Herbert Davis, build the house. If this is so, it is possible that the 
Davises wanted to build a house for the family they planned to have: in 
fact, they had four children, none of whom survived childhood. The house 
was completed in 1903. Long-time residents say both the Davises and Jim 
occupied the house, but some stories claim Jim moved out and into the 
barracks at some point during his long tenure on the farm. The house, 
with its fairly generously-sized eight rooms plus kitchen wing, seems to 
have been planned for a large family. 

In the first few decades of the twentieth century the farm operated 
from income derived from a variety of sources. In 1913 Jim recorded a 
total of 136 sheep, some sold for meat and all sheared for their wool. 
He made barrels, which he sold for ninety-five cents each to the Great 



16 San Juan Islander , 20 September 1900, p. 3. 

'^Khoda Crook Anderson interview by Stoddard, 18 February 1970; 
Lucile McDonald, "Historic Acres to Be a State Park," The Seattle Times , 
15 December 1963, p. 7. Another story is that Crook bui It the house for 
a mail-order bride who never showed up, or that he built it for a fiancee 
who changed her mind. It is possible that William designed the house, 
since he did not die until 1901, when the house was presumably under 
construction. 

3;. 



Northern Fish Company. In 1921 he supplemented the farm income by 
working on a road, possibly for the county. A number of outbuildings 
began to appear around the meadow northwest of the house, reflecting farm 
functions. These included two chicken houses, an existing smokehouse, a 
garage, a sawmill, a granary, and several other structures. At some 
point the English Camp barracks was converted to a barn. In 1902 James 
purchased an additional forty-five acres—Lots 1 and 2 of Section 26, 
which had a structure on it--on the south edge of Westcott Bay, north of 
his holdings. By 1911 he owned a little over 272 acres, three horses, 
four yearling cattle, sheep, a wagon, and a carriage, $35 in general 
agricultural machinery and $120 worth of major agricultural equipment, 
such as a threshing machine or hay press. He also had $50 worth of 

"J o 

boats, but as yet did not own an automobile. 

Even as a youngster Jim tinkered with machinery, ". . . always 
making something new, inventing something," an occupation he pursued 
throughout his life. His sister Rhoda said their father used to lock up 
his tools to keep his children away from them. One day, however, Jim 
stole the key to the tool cabinet and proceeded to make a model 
airplane. William found him working on it, and asked "What's that 
thing?" When Jim told him, his father said "Have you lost your senses?" 
The ill-fated craft was thrown out, and, according to Rhoda, ". . . that 
settled that." Much later Jim told journalist Frank Lynch he ". . . had 
an idea for a flying machine—never did have the money to develop it. 



'°Crook Day Book, Collection of San Juan County Historical 
Society, ca. 1890-1927; San Juan County Real Property Assessment and Tax 
Rolls, 1905, 1911; San Juan County Personal Property Assessment Roll, 
73057 1910. 



3'_< 




HftriHgf 









FIGURE 8 Jim Crook with homemade wool suit, ca. 1945. 
Collection, San Juan Island National Historical Park. 



40 



Then the Wright brothers came out with something very much like I had in 

19 
mind myself." 

Crook has also been credited with building boats. In 1970 two half 

models of boats were found under the barracks building, one of which was 

stamped with "J. Crook." The models, built between 1890 and 1940, were 

apparently used by Crook to construct full-scale boats, and were of a 

design common to the islands in the years between 1901 and 1916. Jim may 

have picked up his boatbuilding skills from his father, whom his sister 

20 
claimed had built a catamaran of juniper wood. 

Jim began to tinker with the machinery he used on the farm, 

modifying their operation to perform different tasks than called for in 

their original design. He would not, according to Rhoda, give up on an 

invention ". . . until he got it right." He designed and built the 

sawmill, and claimed to have made everything in it ". . . but the saw and 

the wheels for the carriage." He altered a tractor so he could rake hay 

while operating the tractor. He built a loom—he said he got the idea 

from a book—and a spinning machine and spool rack, and a 

twenty-foot-long, two-ton carding machine from a manure spreader's 

wheels, dried steer hide, homemade gears and chains, and the wood of 

various trees, all powered by a belt connected to a tractor. From these 

inventions he made his own clothes from the wool of his own sheep. Other 

Crook-created items ranged from a simple system of iron pipes and slats 



l^Rhoda Crook Anderson interview by Stoddard; Lynch, "Old 
Blockhouse. " 

^Rhoda Crook Anderson interview by Stoddard; Kenady, Stephen, 
"Small Craft Half Models from English Camp," in San Juan Archaeology , ed 
Roderick Sprague, vol. 1 (Moscow, Idaho: Laboratory of Anthropology, 
University of Idaho, 1983), pp. 189-196. 

41 



to train pea vines, to a pulley system in the house which would 
automatically make his bed. One piece of machinery found after his death 

was an Essex automobile which had been converted into a power cut-off 

21 
saw. As he put it, "I've always had a mind for inventions . . ." 

Sometime around 1913 "an Englishman" arrived in English Camp, asking 

to see the graves of Royal Marines buried on Mount Young in the 1860s. 

According to Crook, as a result of the visit and subsequent letters to 

England, he was hired to care for the cemetery at ten dollars per year, 

which, he said, consisted of raking leaves, mowing the grass, and 

building a protective fence and stile. This was one of the first actions 

taken by the Crooks to begin to preserve the English Camp site and share 

it with the public. Visitors to the site gradually increased: in 1956 

Mary Davis told a reporter she would guide up to 100 visitors each day, 

curious about the story of English Camp. In 1956 Royal Canadian Navy 

officers made an official visit to English Camp and the graves on Mount 

Young. Several years later another contingent of the Royal Canadian Navy 

landed at English Camp to repair the gravesite and hold a brief service, 

after which Crook was presented with the Red Ensign by Canadian 

Lieutenant Commander William Walker. Crook apparently did some 

maintenance work on the English Camp buildings: in the late 1950s he 

re-shingled the blockhouse roof. 



21 Lynch, "Old Blockhouse"; Photo Inventory of Crook Artifacts, 
Collection of San Juan Island National Historical Park. 

"Frank Lynch, "A Bit of British Soil on San Juan," Seattle 
Post-Intel ligencer , 30 August, 1956, n.p.; "James Crook Receives Red 
Ensign at Ceremony," unidentified newscl ipping, collection of San Juan 
Island National Historical Park. 



42 



Jim and his sister, Mary, lived in the Crook house until Mary's 
death in an automobile accident in 1959. Mary, by then a widow, had kept 
a brief journal of her activities during the 1940s, offering some insight 
into daily life on the farm. Her daily notes include a weather log, and 
a description of her weekly chores, such as laundry and house 
cleaning — during the winter the laundry was hung in the house to dry. 
References to "brother J" include mention of his fishing expeditions in 
the straits, cutting hay in the summer, and other farm chores. 
Occasional references are made to sick farm animals and frequent trips by 
Mary to Friday Harbor and Roche Harbor, where she visited friends, 
shopped, and attended Eastern Star and other organizations to which she 
belonged. No note is ever made of Jim accompanying her on her social 
outings. Her diary also frequently notes sightseers to the camp, and an 
occasional hope that visitors wouldn't show up, particularly on cold 
winter days. Both Mary and Jim "loved" the farm, according to their 
sister, Rhoda Anderson, who also said Jim had many opportunities to sell 

the property, but always decided there was no other place he would rather 

,. 23 
live. 

In 1960 eighty-year-old sister Rhoda, then a widow for more than 

twenty years, arrived at the farm to "take care" of her brother, Jim, age 

87, who was suffering from a crippling arthritis which required him to 

use canes to walk. In 1963 Jim and Rhoda transferred ownership of over 

100 acres, including the English Camp site, to the Washington State Parks 

and Recreation Commission, several months after Senator Henry Jackson 



"Mary Crook Davis, unpublished diary, 1 January 1943-20 September 
1947; Collection of San Juan County Historical Society, San Juan Island, 
Washington; Rhoda Crook Anderson interview by Stoddard. 

43 



introduced Senate Bill 1441 to authorize the establishment of the Pig War 
National Monument. In 1964 a National Park Service team from the Western 
Regional Office and Olympic National Park submitted a proposal for the 
establishment of San Juan Island National Historical Park, including both 
English and American Camps. On September 9, 1966, the 89th Congress 
passed Public Law 89-565, which authorized the establishment of the park 
and over three million dollars for acquisition of the lands and 
development of the park. When hearings on the establishment of the park 
were held in 1965, the Park Service endorsed life tenure for Jim, who at 
that point still owned over 170 acres in the vicinity of the camp, 
including the site of his house. The park's first master plan, dated 
June 1968, outlined acquisition and development plans for the park, 
including purchase of Crook's remaining land and transfer of ownership of 
the State-owned English Camp property. Before the plan was published, 
however, Jim Crook had died--in March 1967 at the age of 93--and his 
sister, Rhoda, was left sole heir of his estate. 

In June 1968 the National Park Service purchased the remaining Crook 
land from Rhoda, who was given lifetime tenure in the house and three 
acres surrounding it. The land and house passed to the park after her 
death in 1972. 



44 




FIGURE 9 Mary Crook Davis and Jim Crook, ca. 1955. Photo by Eleanor Howard 
Collection, San Juan Island National Historical Park. 



4 r , 




FIGURE 10 Crook House soon after completion, ca. 1903. Left to right-- 
Herbert Davis, Mary Crook Davis, Jim Crook and unknown man, possibly Fred 
Anderson. Collection, San Juan Island National Historical Park. 





tftfH 



*~1 




FIGURE 11 Crook House porch brackets, 1984, 
National Park Service. 



Photo by Barry Schnoll, 



\6 



The Crook House 

The Crook house was built just north of what has been called the 
Royal Marines' blacksmith shop, on a knoll not far from the "library" 
where the Crook family lived for some years. Crook began work on the 
house in 1900, and it was completed in 1903. It is a two-story, 
balloon-framed building, 28'2" square in plan, with a 16'5"-by-24'2", 
one-story wing on the east, added in the early 1960s. The low-pitched 
gable roof's ridge runs north-south, with a cross-gable on the west half 
which extends beyond the house's walls to cover a full-length, two-story 
porch. 

The building's most significant architectural feature is its 
six-foot deep entrance porch, which, with its simple jig-sawn brackets, 
slender chamfered posts, and elliptic-shaped gable end arch, looks like a 



'Rhoda Crook Anderson interview by Stoddard, 18 February 1970. 

4 7 



simple version of the details and forms popularized in Palliser's later 
architectural pattern books for country cottages. In fact, a number of 
sheets of Palliser's architectural details, copyrighted in 1880, were 
found among the collection of drawings by Jim Crook's father and 
grandfather after Rhoda Anderson's death. 

The porch has boxed eaves and horizontal board siding in the gable 
end, with 1 l/2"-by-l" wood strips laid vertically and horizontally in a 
decorative geometric pattern. The porch ceiling follows the shape of the 
arch ellipse, and is enclosed with butted l"-by-4" boards. The four 
supporting chamfered posts are two-stories tall, laterally braced by the 
porch roof, the 2"-by-6" floor joists on the second floor, and the first 
floor. The second-story porch floor consists of l"-by-5 1/4" beaded 
boards, with exposed ends extending beyond the bottom rail of the 
balustrade, giving the porch an unfinished appearance. The balustrades 
are simple: 1 l/4"-by-l 1/4" balusters spaced approximately 6" on center, 
with 2"-by-4" top rails and 2"-by-6" bottom rails. The second floor 
balustrade, at 2'7" in height, is 6" taller than the first floor 
balustrade. The crawl space beneath the porch was skirted with l"-by-4" 
tongue-and-groove vertical siding, now replaced by TI-11 installed 
vertically. The original centralized, wide porch stairs had eight 
enclosed wood steps leading to the first floor landing, with a balustrade 
similar to those on the first and second floors, flanked at grade by 
4"-by-4" newel posts with very simple carved triangular and notched 
caps. The stairs have been replaced with open treads, new 4"-by-4" 
newels, and a new balustrade top rail, although it appears the balusters 
from the original porch were reused. The original jigsawn brackets, with 
a simple circle motif, are intact. 

48 



The shingled, cross-gable roof has boxed eaves, with narrow 
bargeboard trim, projecting beyond the walls. Two brick chimneys with 
simple corbel caps projected from either end of the main gable ridge: the 
southernmost one has been removed. A wood gutter, patched with sheet 
metal, runs along the east eave line. 

The house retains its original shiplap siding, with vertical 
cornerboards and gable trim boards. The main building fenestration on 
all but the east elevation is identical: two-over-two, tall, narrow 
double-hung windows with large panes each measuring 14" wide and 28" 
tall. The wood rails and stiles and mull ions are narrow; the trim is 
simple butt-jointed l"-by-5" board, with no details. The second floor 
windows on the east elevation have identical sashes and trim, but smaller 
panes which measure 12" wide and 20" tall. The original vertical board 
crawl space skirting around the entire house has been replaced with TI-11 
siding. 

On the west elevation, single windows flank the second floor porch 
door, and double windows flank the first floor entry door. The north 
elevation has two single windows on the upper floor, and three on the 
bottom floor. The south elevation has two single windows on the second 
floor, and a double and a single window below. The placement of the 
windows appear to be functionally-related to the interior plan, rather 
than formal design decisions based on exterior appearance. In size and 
detailing, they appear to be characteristic of farm houses on San Juan 
Island built in the two decades preceeding the turn-of-the-century. 

The two original extant exterior doors are located on the west 
elevation. The first floor entry door has tenoned-through joints and 
molded panels: two square panels below and two tall arched panels above. 

49 



The original hardware has been replaced. Some current island residents 
claim the door was salvaged from the 1867 English Camp Captain's house, 
which burned in the 1890s. A comparison with historic photographs of the 
Captain's house shows a front entry door with similar panel molding, a 
style popular throughout the latter half of the nineteenth century. 
Crook had a reputation of reusing and adapting materials at hand, and it 
is possible the story is true. The second floor porch door is a molded 
panel door altered by Crook: the wood in the area between the middle and 
upper stiles and the right and left rails was removed and replaced with 
two square glass panes flanked by smaller rectangular and square panes 
set in narrow muntins and mull ions. This door, like most of the interior 
doors, probably came from demolished 1860s English Camp structures, and 
was likely altered to admit light into the second floor interior hall. 
Both doors are trimmed with simple butt-jointed l"-by-5" boards. 
The house was not designed with an integral kitchen. Early 
photographs show a series of at least two, and possibly three, kitchen 
facilities located on the east side of the house. The earliest 
photographs of the house show the edge of an attached one-story structure 
on the southeast end of the house, glazed on its south elevation with 
six-over-six windows which may have been salvaged from the 1860s English 
Camp structures. Other early photos show a small, detached, one-story 
gable-roofed structure parallel to and just northeast of the house. This 
structure had a central brick chimney, and probably served as the 
kitchen; it may have been contemporaneous with the glazed wing on the 
south end. In later photographs, a one-story gable-roofed wing has been 
added to the house on the northernmost end of the east elevation, 
apparently replacing the earlier detached unit. This addition, of 

50 





» 



FIGURE 12 Crook House west entry door, 
1984. Possibly salvaged and re-used 
from Captain's house, built in 1867. 
Photo by Barry Schnoll, National Park 
Service. 



FIGURE 13 Crook house second floor porch 
door, 1984. Crook probably installed the 
glazing. Photo by Barry Schnoll, National 
Park Service. 



51 



unknown size, had shiplap siding identical to the main structure, and the 
north elevation had a window identical to those on the house proper, 
except it was laid horizontally. Local residents claim that when Rhoda 
Anderson came to live with her brother after their sister, Mary, died in 
1959, she was appalled by the kitchen and bathroom facilities and 
demanded they be replaced. In the early 1960s the current 

kitchen-bathroom wing was built, replacing the earlier wing in the same 

2 
location. 

This wing has an asphalt-covered flat roof with 8" TI-11 siding, 
laid vertically. It has sliding aluminum windows and two doors: one on 
the east elevation, opening on to a 4'4"-by-10' plywood-floored porch 
roofed with corrugated fiberglass, and one on the south, which at one 
time had steps leading up to it. The foundation is wood posts on 
pre-cast concrete pads. The exterior door on the south has a large 
single glazed panel in its top half. 

The house has been painted at least three times, with photographic 
evidence of white, gold, and a blue-grey color similar to the one 
covering it now. The original wood shingled roof is now covered with 
composition asphalt shingles. The floor system, which consists of joists 
laid on log girders, originally rested on massive tree sections, since 
replaced by wood posts on concrete pads. 

Interior Features 



The original part of the house has four rooms on the first floor and 
four rooms on the second. Access to the second floor is via a single-run 



^Interview with Inez Brown, Brown Lumber Co., Friday Harbor, 
Washington, August 1984. 

52 



FIGURE 14 (Above) Ca. 1960 
kitchen wing addition to Crook 
house, east elevation, 1934. 
The last in a series of 
kitchen facilities serving 
the house. Photo by Barry 
Schnol 1 , National Park 
Service. 



FIGURE 15 (Right) Partial 
north elevation of Crook 
House. Photo by Barry 
Schnol! , National Park 
Service. 







03 



enclosed staircase located near the center of the building. The first 
floor 2"-by-4" stud walls are sheathed with horizontal board siding: 
these were initially finished with wallpaper over building paper, and 
later covered with particle board during the 1960s' remodeling. All 
original first floor door and window openings are framed with decorative 

milled molding with pateras in the upper corners, a typical molding stock 

3 
pattern used in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. 

One-foot-square acoustic tiles, probably added during the 1960s' remodel, 

4 
cover the unfinished wood ceiling boards. Baseboard trim is a simple 

l"-by-8" board, which runs throughout the first floor and is probably 

original, contrasting strangely with the finished look of the door and 

window moldings. A low-pile, wall-to-wall carpet covers the original 3 

1/4" wide tongue-and-groove wood floor. The second floor is unfinished, 

with tongue-and-groove wood floors, five-inch-wide shiplap wood board 

ceilings, and varying sizes of shiplap board sheathing on the walls; 

doors and windows in the west rooms have unpainted cedar ornamental 

moldings, identical to those on the first floor. 

The front entry door, leading from the full-length porch, is 

slightly off-center on the house's west elevation. It opens directly 

into the living room, a 13' 7"-by-14 '4" space with a 9' 1 1/2" high 

ceiling, located in the structure's northwest corner. The 13'0"-by-l 1 '3" 

dining room in the northeast corner is entered via a doorway in the 

living room's east wall, located on an angle from the entry door to 

provide room for the stairwell which runs along the dining room's south 



^An 1880 house in Friday Harbor has identical door and window 
moldings. 

^Original ceiling finish--if any--is unknown. 

54 



wall. A closet beneath the upper half of the staircase opens into the 
dining room, and a small framed "closet" on the dining room's west wall 
encloses the flue for a woodstove, now gone. 

A door in the southeast corner of the dining room leads to a small 
hall at the foot of the stairs, which also has doors on the east, leading 
to the bathroom section of the kitchen wing, and on the south, leading to 
a 13'0"-by-12'3" room that may have been used as a bedroom. 

Double paneled doors on the living room's south wall lead to the 
13'7"-by-12'3" parlor, which now has a 2'-by-4'll" chipboard closet in 
its northeast corner that is seven feet tall. 

A door on the west end of the living room leads into the kitchen 
addition. Paneled and framed with the patera molding, it is an original 
opening and probably initially led to the outside. 

The kitchen-bathroom addition has three rooms: a 15'6"-by-15'10" 
kitchen with wood cabinets and double sink and a door on the east leading 
to the back entry porch; a 7' 10"-by-8'0" utility room reached from a door 
in the southeast corner of the kitchen, and 7'0"-by-8'U" bathroom reached 
from the bottom stair landing. The floors in the addition are covered 
with seamless vinyl flooring, and the walls with gypsum drywall. All 
utility hook-ups are located in the addition. 

The stairs, with treads and risers of uneven length and height, lead 
up to a generously-sized hall, 5'8" wide and 21'8" long. The glazed 
panel door to the second floor porch is at the west end of the hall and 
is currently boarded over. Single doors on either side of the south end 
of the hall lead into unfinished bedrooms: the northwest corner bedroom, 
13'10"-by-10'6", and the southwest corner bedroom, which measures 
14'0"-by-10'4". The 8'11" ceilings in these two rooms slope where the 

55 



cross-gable rafters meet in a valley at the roof near the outer western 
corners. Both rooms have unfinished board walls and ceilings, and 
unpainted patera moldings on doors and windows. The hall-sides of the 
doors do not have molding. Openings leading to the bedrooms to the east 
have been cut in the walls of both rooms. 

A two-foot wide hall, with unfinished board walls and ceilings, runs 
along the east side of the stairwell to provide access to the two east 
bedrooms. The northeast bedroom measures 13'0"-by-10'6", with a 
5'4"-by-3'2" shelved alcove in its southeast corner. A 16 1/2" square 
brick chimney runs from the floor to the ceiling on the room's west wall, 
corresponding with the chimney "closet" in the dining room below. The 
southeast bedroom is 13'0"-by-10'4", with a 5'4"-by-3'2" alcove in its 
northeast corner. A hole in the floor and in the ceiling beside its west 
wall indicate where a chimney once ran from the room below, connecting 
with the now-dismantled second brick chimney. The 8' 11" tall ceilings in 
these rooms slope to 6'4" on the east walls. The windows and doors in 
these two rooms have simple moldings. None of the upstairs rooms have 
baseboard molding. On some walls, the studs have been left exposed. 

There are three types of mortised four-panel doors in the house. 
The most common is a flush-panel type, located at all doorways downstairs 
with the exception of the dining room closet, the dining room entrance to 
the kitchen wing, the front door, and the rear door from the kitchen 
wing. The doorknobs and locksets on these doors are set low, 2' 3 1/2" 
from the bottom of the doors, and most have box locks with porcelain 
knobs, which replaced earlier, narrower hardware. The doors appear to be 
identical to those used in 1860 English Camp structures, and it is likely 
the Crooks re-used the doors from demolished structures in their house. 

5b 






FIGURE 16 Interior door between living 
room and dining room, taken from living 
room, 1984. Note patera ornaments in 
molding corners. Photo by Barry Schnoll, 
National Park Service. 



FIGURE 17 Decorative window trim with 
patera ornament in Crook House living 
room, 1984. Photo by Barry Schnoll, 
National Park Service. 



57 



The original finish on the doors--now painted white—appears to have been 
a varnish. Some of these doors were re-used in the 1960s kitchen 
wing--the utility room doors and the bathroom door. The entrances to the 
two south bedrooms upstairs also have these doors. 

A raised panel door, with low-set hardware, is located between the 
dining room and new kitchen wing, and at the hall entrance to the 
upstairs northwest bedroom. The hall entrance to the upstairs northeast 
bedroom has a panel door that appears handmade, an apparent attempt to 
match the other second floor doors. 

The original finish on the first floor baseboard and the patera 
window and door moldings appears to have been a varnish, similar to those 
on the door. 

Wallpaper samples taken from the stairway show a brittle paper with 
a pastel white background and simple outline flowers. This paper was 
later painted with an off-white color. A sample taken from the parlor 
shows a combination floral and geometric design with a bronze-metallic, 
flocked maroon, olive green, gold, and brown color scheme, later covered 
with fibrous paper painted a beige color. 

The mechanical systems in the house include electric hot water, 
electric baseboard heat and electric lights, all installed in the new 
kitchen wing and retrofitted in the downstairs of the original house. 
Roller-type window shades and fabric curtains hang in some windows. 



bb 



Site Development 



The English Camp site began to change the month the Crook family 
settled it, with the auction of the Royal Marines' buildings in November 
of 1875. While the number of buildings sold and immediately moved from 
the site is unknown, a comparison of historic photographs shows the 
disappearance of several smaller buildings within the military complex. 
The hospital building, now restored on site, was moved to a farm several 
miles away, probably within a few months of the auction. 

Family stories say William Crook began to plant fruit trees within 
three years after settling the site, however, the earliest known 
post-military photograph of the area, which dates from 1880 at the 
earliest, does not show any fruit trees (see Figure 19). Remnants of a 
picket fence near the storehouse, and a fenced pasture to the north of 



'The terms of the auction, made much of in a later lawsuit, 
required the buildings to be moved within thirty days of the sale. 

59 








re 

u 



cu 



- 
u 



CO 



60 






'FT- 










FIGURE 19 English Camp, ca. 1880. The Captain's house can be seen in the 
trees to the right. The buildings on the terrace, from left to right, have 
been identified as the company mess and the carpentry shop--the "library" 
building between the two is missing. Collection, San Juan Island National 
Historical Park. 




FIGURE 20 English Camp, ca. 1885. The masonry ruins on the terrace are to 
the left of what is called the company mess. Collection, San Juan Island 
National Historical Park. 

61 



the camp can be seen in photographs dating from ca. 1880 to ca. 1890. It 
appears that Crook built a split-rail fence, running in an easterly 
direction from a location just east of the barracks buildings, which 
terminated at the north-south running fence built by the Marines on the 
east side of a broad, road-like path which ran behind the buildings on 
the uppermost terrace (see Figure 22). 

Sometime prior to 1895 Crook built a two-story barn with vertical 
siding and a lean-to on the south and west sides of it. The barn was 
located northwest of the present Crook house, roughly in the vicinity of 
the Marines' fenced pasture. The area around it remains cleared—as it 
was during the military period—and was probably used as pasture for 
sheep and cattle. By 1895 the Crooks had built a long pier west of the 
storehouse, extending into Garrison Bay, with a canopied, floating pier 
at its end. The Crooks also built a gable-roofed outbuilding on the east 
end of the pier, near the storehouse. By this time, too, part of the 
orchard north of the storehouse had mature fruit trees; the orchard south 
of the storehouse, in the parade grounds, was somewhat younger, and a 
third section of orchard, which appears to be the smallest of the three, 
extended east up the hill on the south side of the split-rail fence. 

Between 1895 and ca. 1913 the buildings located to the south of the 
masonry ruins were dismantled: these included the mess hall and 
carpenter's shop. The so-called library building had been dismantled or 
destroyed sometime around 1880-1885. Also sometime within this period 
the split-rail fence was replaced with a picket fence, and was extended 
at the bottom of the Crook house knoll on a north-south axis. The 
disputed Lieutenant's and Captain's houses burned in a fire in 1894: 



62 




m 



FIGURE 21 English Camp, ca. 1895. Crook-built barn visible on the left- 
new pier and building appear on Garrison Bay. Collection, San Juan Island 
National Historical Park. 




FIGURE 22 East elevation of masonry ruins and company mess; the latter mav 
have been the library building. Date unknown, but prior to 1910. Collection 
San Juan Island National Historical Park. ' 

63 



evidence of the fire in the timber stands above the house can be seen in 

2 
early photographs. 

A series of outbuildings were located north of the house, a number 

of which were dismantled in 1982-1983 (see Figure 25). One of these, 

called a woodshed-storage building, had hand-hewn timbers, board and 

batten siding with evidence of whitewash, and a gable roof. This 

structure, when inventoried in 1975, was situated directly east of the 

Crook house near the location of the earliest kitchen building as 

indicated in historic photographs. It is possible this was the original 

detached kitchen, later moved further back to make room for yet another 

3 
attached kitchen wing. 

Other dismantled buildings included a garage, east of the house and 

just north of the extant wood gate along the north-south road the Crooks 

used as an entry to their house. The road continued in a northerly 

direction for another 200 feet beyond the garage, where another gate was 

located: one remaining post indicates the location of the gate. Beyond 

the gate was a large 70'-by-100' barn, 30' tall: this structure was built 

by Jim Crook, possibly in the 1920s, and dismantled in 1971. West of the 

barn were three structures: two poultry houses and a small shed. All 

three buildings had board and batten siding, and according to a 1975 



^Thompson, Historic Resource Study , page 222. The identity of 
these buildings is not certain, as Thompson notes. In fact, the building 
he identifies as the company mess was identified by Rhoda Crook Anderson 
as either the library or the hospital (page 221). The earliest known 
photo from the Crook era, dating ca. 1880 (Figure 19), shows the library 
already gone, which does not tally with Rhoda's story about the family 
moving from the Lieutenant's house to the library—she claims to have 
been born in the Lieutenant's house in 1880. 

•^Harold LaFleur, Jr., List of Classified Structures Nomination 
Forms (Washington: San Juan Island National Historical Park, 1975). 

64 




FIGURE 23 Crook orchard in Royal Marines' parade ground, view looking north, 
1908. Collection, San Juan Island National Historical Park. 





FIGURE 24 Crook sheep in parade ground with blockhouse in background, ca. 
Collection, San Juan Island National Historical Park. 



915, 



65 



inventory, were built by Jim Crook in the 1920s. Slightly northwest of 
the poultry houses was a ca. 1920 sawmill, now in ruins, with some of the 
mill equipment still present. Northwest of the sawmill is a small 
6'-by-6' smokehouse, still intact, with extant screened trays for smoking 
raw products, possibly built in the 1920s. Northeast of the sawmill is 
an extant gable-roofed granary with board and batten siding. Its 
construction is attributed to Jim Crook. The picket fence Jim Crook 
built to replace the earlier east-west split-rail fence running between 
the campsite and the house was dismantled by the Park in the early 
1980s. At some point Crook replaced the north-south running picket fence 
with a split-rail fence, now gone. 

This report recommends a complete historic landscape study prior to 
any further changes in the site or structures relating to the Crook 
period of development. 



b6 



PART THREE 

EXISTING SITE AND 

BUILDING CONDITIONS 




Site 

The present approach to the Crook House is along the main entry 
trail to English Camp and then up a steep grassy hillside. No formal 
pedestrian link exists between the camp buildings and the house due to 
past interpretive mandates which disregarded the house and its history 
and thus tried to isolate and hide the house as an intrusion to the 
English Camp setting. 

A visitor's experience of English Camp begins with a walk down a 
gravel trail leading west from the parking lot. Bordered by dense 
vegetation and a low split rail fence, the trail ends at the southern end 
of a low level clearing that stretches several hundred yards north along 
Garrison Bay. Several steps northwest of the trail terminus is the 
present visitor center, housed in the restored barracks, a long, 
rectangular, one-story, white-frame structure. To the west of the 
barracks and slightly north on the shoreline of the bay sits the 

69 



HISTORIC ENGLISH CAMP STRUCTURES: 



SLOCK HOUSE 

FLAGPOLE 

FORMAL GAROEN 

BARRACKS (Visitor Center) 

COMMISSARY 

HOSPITAL 



7 MASONRY RUIN 



CROOK FARM STRUCTURES: 

8 CROOK HOUSE 

9 SHED 

10 SHED 

11 STORE HOUSE (Dismantled) 

12 GARAGE (Dismantled) 

13 BARN (Dismantled) 

14 WEST POULTRY HOUSE (Dismantled) 

15 EAST POULTRY HOUSE (Dismantled) 

16 SMALL SHED (Dismantled) 

17 SAW MILL (Ruins) 

18 SMOKE HOUSE 

19 GRANARY 

20 METAL SHED 




SITE PLA 



FIGURE 25 



70 



blockhouse, a restored, two-story, log structure, with the reconstructed 
camp flagpole directly east of its entrance. Visitors may tour the empty 
first floor of the blockhouse. To the south of the blockhouse and below 
a steeply wooded hillside is the re-creation of a small formal garden. 

The main clearing in the center of the complex contains a few large 
isolated trees from the historic period, as well as several clumps of 
bushes and shrubs, and the remains of a Crook farm orchard towards the 
north end. 

To the north of the blockhouse, above the shoreline, sits the 
commissary. A one-story, white, wood plank structure with a decorative 
bargeboard, it is currently used for storage of miscellaneous park 
maintenance equipment and is not open to the public. Directly to the 
east is the one-story hospital, which has been returned to its original 
site and restored. Because only the exterior has been restored, this 
structure is also closed to the public. Metal markers outside the 
buildings give a brief history of each structure. 

Only after surveying the English Camp site, which is spread out in 
the clearing, does the visitor turn around and look up the steep grassy 
hillside to the east. At the top, partially obscured by overgrown 
maples, firs, and dense ground cover, sits the Crook House, commanding a 
dominate view of the entire campsite. 

A short steep climb up the grassy knoll terminates at the west end 
porch of the Crook house. The English Camp masonry ruins sit to the 
southwest of the house. A path leads around the north side of the house 
to the back entry on the east side. 

Remains of several outbuildings are present throughout the grounds 
to the east of the house, and two other plywood sheds sit partially 

71 




FIGURE 26 West elevation of Crook House, 1975. Photo by Harold LaFleur, Jr., 
National Park Service. 







FIGURE 27 South elevation of Crook House, 1975. Photo by Harold LaFleur, 
Jr., National Park Service. 



72 




FIGURE 28 North elevation of Crook House, 1975, 
Jr. , National Park Service. 



Photo by Harold LaFleur, 




FIGURE 29 North elevation of Crook House, 1975, 
Jr., National Park Service. 

73 



Photo by Harold LaFleur, 



hidden in the dense brush to the southeast. These structures and remains 
are but a few of the clues to the historic landscape of the Crook 
homestead. 

Large overhanging trees and dense vegetation severely limit access 
around the south side of the house. The grounds to the east are soggy 
and wet most of the time, indicating the presence of hillside springs 
beyond. Slightly further east and running south is the old farm entrance 
road which leads back to the parking lot trailhead. The road is seldom 
used and retains handmade gates and fencework from the Crook era. 



74 



Building 



Structural Systems 

The FOUNDATION of the house consists of 6"-by-8" wood posts set on 
16" square pre-cast concrete pads (Figure 34). The posts support five 
equally-spaced, peeled cedar log girders, each approximately 16" in 
diameter, with a slight taper as they run from east to west. The girders 
run continuously to the west end of the porch structure. Many of the 
posts have wood shims, indicating an earlier leveling or compensation for 
the girder taper. 

Notches cut into the underside of the girders at regular intervals 
appear to be for the original support posts, which were large diameter 
unhewn tree trunks set directly on the ground (Figure 35). Some of these 
have been lying in the crawl space. 

Crawl space access is through a removable skirting panel just north 
of the west end porch steps. Crawl space headroom gradually tapers from 

75 




< 

> 

LU 

-J 
LU 



1- 


c 




en 


co 


L_J 


LU 






— 


5 


L_ 



76 




< 

> 

LLI 

-J 
LU 



»- K 



CJ3 



CO 



I 




I- 
< 

> 

LU 

-J 
LU 



CO 



LU 



C\J 

m 



LT 



78 




< 

> 

LU 

I 

LU 



a: " 

O i 

C3 



3 1/2 feet at the west end to less than one foot at the east end. 

The tops of the girders are level to provide a bearing surface for 
the 2"-by-6" wood floor joists spaced 2'0" on center and running 
north-south. The joists are doubled under the east and west ends of the 
house. Under the porch area, 2"-by-4" sister joists have been added to 
each 2"-by-6" for additional support. A 3"-by-10" beam supports the 
north-south interior bearing wall. Floor joists are cross braced with 
2"-by-4"s at 4'0" on center. A subflooring running east-west across the 
floor joists consists of l"-by-9" rough-sawn shiplap cedar boards. 

The addition foundation consists of 6"-by-8" wood posts on 16" 
square pre-cast concrete pads. Each floor beam consists of three 
2"-by-8"s spiked together, running in the east-west direction. Floor 
joists run north-south and consist of 2"-by-6"s at 16" on center. The 
subfloor is 3/4" plywood. 

Crawl space headroom under the addition is generally less than one 
foot, with open access through the existing house crawl space. 

In general, the foundation and floor framing appear to be in very 
good condition with little evidence of insect rot or decay. One 
exception is the southern-most girder under the porch's west end. 
Advanced deterioration of the girder and floor joists in the area due to 
moisture penetration needs to be stopped and damaged sections replaced. 
Appropriate design details should prevent further occurences of the 
problem. The crawl space is dry and well-ventilated. 

The foundation and floor framing of the addition are in excellent 
condition. 



81 




0'U#^^^ 




em 



FIGURE 34 Crook House foundation, west end under porch, 1984, 
Barry Schnoll, National Park Service. 



Photo by 




FIGURE 35 Crook House foundation: notch in log girder for original post, 
1984. Photo by Barry Schnoll, National Park Service. 

82 



WALL FRAMING in the Crook house is balloon construction with 
2"-by-4" rough sawn lumber at 2'0" on center. Wall construction of the 
addition portion is 2"-by-4" dimensional lumber at 2'0" on center, 
probably platform framing. 

The ROOF STRUCTURE of the original house is 2"-by-6" rough-sawn wood 
rafters at 24" on center, with no ridge board. A l"-by-6" collar tie 
stiffens each pair of rafters two feet below the ridge. 
Two-inch-by-four-inch posts have been added in the attic to brace the 
center three rafter pairs at the ridge crossing. The roof has a twelve 
inch overhang with an enclosed soffit supported by 2"-by-4" outlookers 
and a l"-by-4" eave fascia. 

Roof sheathing consists of 1" rough-sawn cedar boards, ranging in 
width from 3 to 9 inches, with random width gaps between the boards. A 
fairly recent roof deck of 1/2" plywood is applied over the sheathing. 

Both layers of roof sheathing exhibit evidence of water damage, 
indicating a deteriorated roof and flashing system. 

The roof structure of the addition portion is basically flat, and 
consists of 2"-by-12" wood rafters at 24" on center running east-west. 
The roof has a I'll" overhang on the north and east sides and a 12" 
overhang on the south, with an open soffit. On the north and south sides 
the overhangs are supported by 2"-by-12" outlookers spaced at 16" on 
center. 

The two-story PORCH STRUCTURE at the west end of the Crook house is 
supported by the 4"-by-4" chamfered wood columns, which extend from the 
foundation to the roof structure. A half lap joint occurs in the two 
center columns just below the gable end arch. 



83 



The first floor deck is 3/4" plywood which extends 2" beyond the 
skirting on all sides and slopes down slightly from east to west. 

The second floor porch structure consists of 2"-by-6" girders 
between the 4"-by-4" columns and between the columns and the house. 
Running north-south between the girders are 2"-by-6" joists. All 
structural connections are butt jointed and toenailed. A l"-by-4" ledger 
is attached to the house wall to help support the deck. The deck is a 
l"-by-5 1/4" tongue-and-groove beaded board with the pattern facing down 
and visible as the first floor porch ceiling. It extends 2" on all sides 
beyond the structural supports. The ceiling of the second floor porch is 
a similar beaded board, which varies in height, and roughly follows the 
gable end arch (Figure 36). 

The gable end pattern is board and batten construction, although it 
is mainly decorative. A layer of l"-by-9" boards are attached between 
the columns and roof structure, with batten strips applied horizontally 
and vertically. The curved lower trim strips are cut from flat l"-by-4" 
material and pieced together (Figure 37). 

RAILINGS on both porch levels consist of a 2"-by-4" top rail laid 
flat between the columns, and a vertical 2"-by-6" bottom rail, with a 
slightly beveled top. Balusters between the railings are 
1 l/4"-by-l 1/4" toenailed to the rails at 6" on center. 

STAIRS to grade from the porch have a similar railing construction. 
Each step consists of three 2"-by-4"s laid flat resting on three evenly 
spaced 2"-by-12" stringers. Where the stringers meet the porch 
structure, a 2"-by-4" upright adds support (Figure 38). 

The CONDITION of the porch structure presents the most immediate and 
visible areas of concern. The south-west column has an auxiliary 

84 




>."fc# 




FIGURE 36 Beaded board ceiling of second floor porch, 1984. Photo by 
Barry Schnoll, National Park Service. 



m •' 




FIGURE 37 Crook House porch with distinctive gable end treatment, 
1984. Photo by Barry Schnoll, National Park Service. 



85 



« I II III I »l M i f 







FIGURE 38 West porch steps of Crook House, 1984. Photo by Barry Schnoll, 
National Park Service. 




FIGURE 39 Deteriorated first floor porch deck, southwest corner of Crook 
House, 1984. Photo by Barry Schnoll, National Park Service. 



86 



4"-by-4" strapped to it resting on a temporary footing, which helps 
support the original deteriorated column base (Figure 40). Moisture 
penetration has contributed to a high degree of deterioration of the 
porch deck, porch joists, and main girder below (Figure 39, 41, 43). 

Railings on both levels are in a weakened condition due to loose 
structural connections (Figure 42). The second level floor deck is badly 
warped and beginning to rot along the edges. Floor joists supporting the 
deck are extremely loose at all butt joints. 

Exterior Building Envelope 

The exterior skin of the building is painted l"-by-5" bevel edge 
shiplap cedar siding applied directly to the wall studs (Figure 44). An 
asphalt shingle roof with metal flashing is laid over a 1/2" plywood roof 
deck. Wood gutters with metal ends are found on the existing roof 
structure, yet do not appear in the historic photos. The entire roof 
system and gutters are in poor condition and in need of major repair and 
replacement (Figure 45). 

The perimeter wood foundation skirting is TI-11 siding, simulating a 
vertical shiplap pattern 8" on center. The material was installed at the 
time of the house addition, replacing a material similar to the existing 
house siding. The skirting is attached to blocking between the floor 
joists at the top and between the foundation posts at the bottom. A 
piece of l/8"-by-8" masonite protects the wood at grade level. Adequate 
venting of the crawl space is accomplished with aluminum vents in the 
skirting of both the existing and new addition. 

The skirting is basically in good condition, but adequate care 
should be taken to remove soil, vegetation and debris from contact with 

87 




FIGURE 40 (Above left) Temporary bracing 
for southwest corner porch column, 1984. 
Photo by Barry Schnoll, National Park 
Service. 

FIGURE 41 (Above right) Deteriorated 
skirting under porch deck in southwest 
corner, 1984. Photo by Barry Schnoll, 
National Park Service. 

FIGURE 42 (Right) Second floor porch 
railing. The top rail is separating from 
the column and the balusters are loose, 
1984. Photo by Barry Schnoll, National 
Park Service. 






FIGURE 43 Northwest corner of Crook House porch, 1984. Lack of sealant 
allows moisture penetration. Photo by Barry Schnoll, National Park Service, 




FIGURE 44 Bevel edge shiplap siding and Tl -11 skirting, south wall of 
Crook House, 1984. Photo by Barry Schnoll, National Park Service. 



89 



the skirting. 

There is no insulation found anywhere in the existing structure. 
The addition has not yet been examined for insulation. 

All windows of the original house are single pane 2/2 double-hung in 
repairable condition. Reglazing, weather stripping, and new sash weight 
cords, as well as stripping off of numerous paint layers will restore the 
windows to their original condition. Fabrication of a removable storm 
sash should be considered. 

The addition is sided with TI-11, the same pattern used in the 
original house skirting. The roof is a built-up bitumen system with a 
raised metal coping around the perimeter. Because of the flat pitch on 
the roof and cogged roof drains, water ponding is a constant problem 
(Figure 46). The entire roof area needs a resloping and a new roof 
system applied. Exact construction details of the roof system are not 
known at this time. 

Windows in the addition portion are all single-pane aluminum sliders 
in excellent working condition. The addition of a storm sash for these 
windows should be considered. 

Exterior doors are in good condition. Weather stripping and 
thresholds need replacement and a uniform haroware system should be 
installed. 

Mechanical System 

The existing mechanical systems have been shut off since the early 
1970s when the National Park Service took possession of the structure, 
making any statements as to their functionality difficult. 



9d 












FIGURE 45 East gable roof of Crook House, 1984. Shingles, brick and flashing 
show advanced deterioration. Photo by Barry Schnoll, National Park Service. 



*•<»- 




FIGURE 46 Crook House addition, 1984. Flat roof contributes to ponding, 
Photo by Barry Schnoll, National Park Service. 



91 



The heating system of the existing house consists of two electric 
wall heaters on the first floor. One is located on the east wall of the 
bedroom #1, and another on the south wall of the living room. Both 
heaters are rated at 2000 watt/240 volt but, due to exposed wiring, do 
not comply with code requirements. 

The addition contains two electrically-heated hot water baseboards 
in the northeast corner of the kitchen. 

There has never been a central heating system in the house. The 
existing chimney and flue openings indicate stoves were the principal 
historic heat source (Figure 47). Three stoves appear to have been in 
use in the north half of the house, two upstairs in bedrooms #2 and #3, 
and one in the living room downscairs. The south half reflects a similar 
arrangement although the chimney has since been dismantled and the 
various openings throughout the ceiling, floor, wall, and roof sealed 
(Figure 48). 

A capped insulated metal flue in the kitchen addition along the 
north wall indicates the use of a wood stove in that area, probably as 
the primary heat source. 

There are no heating or plumbing systems on the second floor. All 
plumbing is located in the addition. The bathroom, accessed through the 
stair hall of the existing house, contains a wall-mounted lavatory, a 
water closet, and a bathtub with shower head. The kitchen area has a 
two-compartment sink in an enclosed cabinet. The utility area contains 
the 52-gallon capacity electric hot water heater, as well as hot and cold 
water hookups for a washing machine. 



9? 





FIGURE 47 Chimney on unfinished west wall 
of Bedroom #3, Crook House, 1984. Stove 
flue hole filled with mortar. Photo by 
Barry Schnoll, National Park Service. 



FIGURE 48 Bedroom #4 of Crook House, 1984 
Upstairs rooms were never finished. Open- 
ing in floor indicates location of dis- 
mantled chimney. Photo by Barry Schnoll, 
National Park Service. 



93 



Electrical System 

The entire house is fed by an overhead service line entering the 
main service panel in the northeast corner of the dining room. Service 
is rated at 100 amps maximum with a 120/240 volt 1 phase, 3 wire system. 
There is no electrical service upstairs. 

Historic photos of a kitchen wing indicate electrical service to the 
house before the existing addition. Much of the wiring runs under the 
floor system in the crawl space, or is exposed on the interior. 

Most lighting is provided by exposed incandescent lamps in porcelain 
holders, some with pull chains. All first floor rooms have either one or 
two duplex outlets located at floor level. A 220 volt outlet on the west 
wall of the kitchen serviced the range. 

Two exterior wall-mounted incandescent fixtures illuminate the rear 
entrance area of the addition. 

Interior 

On the first floor of the original house, historic interior finishes 
have been covered up with inappropriate materials which do not meet 
building safety code requirements, and do not enhance the historic 
character of the house. 

The addition needs a thorough cleanup of all finish surfaces, as 
well as some minor repairs. 



94 





FIGURE 49 Unfinished interior of Bedroom 
#4, Crook House, 1984. Ceiling drop and 
studs laid flat on the north wall. 
Photo by Barry Schnoll, National Park 
Service. 



FIGURE 50 Crook House staircase, looking 
west, 1984. Tread depth and riser height 
are not consistent. Photo by Barry Schnoll, 
National Park Service. 



95 



FIRST FLOOR ROOM BY ROOM DESCRIPTION 



PORCH 

DIMENSIONS 

-- EW 23'6" NS 6'8" ceiling 9' 6 1/2" 

FLOOR 

— Painted 3/4" plywood EW direction with slope down in 

W direction 
CEILING 
-- Painted 5 1/4" x 3/4" x 6'8" tongue-and-groove 

beaded board (also serves as deck of second floor 

porch, pattern faces down) 
RAILING 
-- Painted 2x4 top rail (laid flat between 4x4 

columns); height 2'1" above porch floor 
-- 1 1/4" x 1 1/4" balusters at 6" on center 
--2x6 bottom rail (vertical between 4x4 columns 

with beveled top) 
FEATURES 

-- Top of window sills 2'0" above porch floor 
-- Decorative brackets with circular motif 
COMMENTS 
-- Steps to grade are not original 



LIVING ROOM 
DIMENSIONS 

-- EW 13'7" NS 14'4" ceiling 9' 1 1/2" 
FLOOR 
-- Carpet over 3 1/4" wide tongue-and-groove hardwood 

flooring running NS direction 
CEILING 
-- 12" x 12" acoustical tiles over wallpaper over 

unfinished 1 x 9 shiplap cedar ceiling boards 

running EW 
WALLS 
-- Painted 1/2" chipboard over wallpaper over 

unfinished 1 x 9 shiplap cedar wall boards 

(hori zontal ) 
MOLDINGS 

-- Base - painted 1 x 8 cedar 
HEATING 
-- Wall mounted electric heater on S wall, E of parlor 

doors, just above base molding 
-- 8" diameter opening in E wall for flue pipe, 10" 

below ceiling, 24 1/2" N of door into dining room 
LIGHTING 

-- 3 wall outlets 
FEATURES 
-- Angled ceiling drop under stairway area at S£ corner 

projects 3'0" EW, 1 * 10" NS, height at bottom of drop 

6' 11 1/2" 
-- All windows have drapes and shade with hardware 



PARLOR 

DIMENSIONS 

-- EW 13'7" NS 12*3" ceiling 9' 1 1/2" 

FLOOR 

-- Carpet over 3 1/4" wide tongue-and-groove hardwood 

flooring running NS direction 
CEILING 
-- 12" x 12" acoustical tiles over wallpaper over 

unfinished 1 x 9 shiplap cedar ceiling boards 

running EW 
WALLS 
-- Painted 1/2" chipboard over wallpaper over 

unfinished 1 x 9 shiplap cedar wall boards 

(hori zontal ) 
MOLDINGS 

-- Base - painted 1 x 3 cedar 
LIGHTING 

-- 2 wal 1 outlets 
FEATURES 
-- Closet on N wall constructed of painted 1/2" 

chipboard with shelf and pole, interior unfinished, 

4' 11" EW, 2'0" NS, 7'1" high (enclosed top) 



% 



DINING ROOM 
DIMENSIONS 

-- EW 13'0" NS 1V3" ceiling 9' 1 1/2" 
FLOOR 
-- Carpet over 3 1/4" wide tongue-and-groove hardwood 

flooring running NS direction 
CEILING 
-- 12" x 12" acoustical tiles over wallpaper over 

unfinished 1 x 9 shiplap cedar ceiling boards 

running EW 
WALLS 
-- Painted 1/2" chipboard over wallpaper over 

unfinished 1 x 9 shiplap cedar wall boards 

(horizontal) 
MOLDING 

-- Base - painted 1 x 8 cedar 
LIGHTING 

-- Porcelain base with incandescent bulb 
-- 1 wall outlet 
FEATURES 

-- Main electric service panel on N wall (at NE corner) 
-- Closet under stairway (S wall) 
-- Closet enclosing chimney support brackets en W wall, 

(similar wall finishes as dining room) 
-- All windows have drapes and shades with hardware 



BEDROOM #1 
DIMENSIONS 

-- EW 13'0" NS 12'3" ceiling 9' 1 1/2" 
FLOOR 
-- Carpet over 3 1/4" wide tongue-and-groove hardwood 

flooring running NS direction 
CEILING 
-- 12" x 12" acoustical tiles over wallpaper over 

unfinished 1 x 9 shiplap cedar ceiling boards 

running EW 
WALLS 
-- Painted 1/2" chipboard over wallpaper over 

unfinished 1 x 9 shiplap cedar wall boards 

(horizontal ) 
MOLDINGS 

-- Base - painted 1 x 8 cedar 
HEATING 

-- Wall mounted electric heater on E wall 
-- Patched chimney opening in ceiling along W wall, 

3'5" N of S wall (opening 17" x 17") 
LIGHTING 

-- (1) wall outlet 
FEATURES 

-- All windows have drapes and shade with hardware 
COMMENTS 
-- Presently used for curatorial storage 



BATHROOM 

DIMENSIONS 

-- EW 7'0" NS 8'0" ceiling 7' 9 1/2" 

FLOOR 

-- Sheet vinyl over 5/8" plywood 

CEILING 

— Painted 1/2" gypsum wallboard 
WALLS 

— Painted 1/2" gypsum wallboard 
MOLDING 

-- Base - painted 1 3/4" x 3/4" pine 

LIGHTING 

-- Porcelain base with incandescent bulb 

-- Wall mounted porcelain base with incandescent bulb 

on S wall 28" above lavatory 
-- Wall outlet at 42" on S wall above lavatory 
FEATURES 
-- Water closet area 2'8" wide NS to ceiling, 2'6" EW 

from E wal 1 
-- Formica on S wall of water closet area, 4' 11" high 

with 1/8" metal trim 
-- Tub 4'10" x 2'5", 15 1/2" high; surround is 1/8" 

formica, 5' 6 1/2" height with 1/8" metal trim 
-- Recessed wall cabinet with mirror front on W wall 

above sink (16" x 26") 
-- Towel bar on W wal 1 
-- Window has a shade 




Ql 



97 



UTILITY ROOM 
DIMENSIONS 

— EW 7' 10" NS 8'0" ceiling 7' 9 1/2" 
FLOOR 

-- Sheet vinyl over 5/8" plywood 

CEILING 

-- Painted 1/2" gypsum wallboard 

WALLS 

— Painted 1/2" gypsum wallboard 
MOLDING 

-- Base - painted 1 3/4" x 3/4" pine 

LIGHTING 

-- Porcelain receptacle with incandescent bulb 

-- (2) wall outlets 

FEATURES 

-- Cabinet on W wall, 16 1/4" EW, 3'4" NS, full height 

to ceiling 
-- Cabinet has 6 screen shelves and 2 thru wall vents 

to outside 

— Electric hot water heater in NW corner (52-gallon 
capacity) 

-- Hot and cold water supply 1 ' : nes at 50" high on W 

wall for washer/dryer 
-- Al 1 windows have shades 



KITCHEN 

DIMENSIONS 

-- EW 15'6" NS 14' 10 1/2" ceiling 7' 9 1/2" 

FLOOR 

-- Sheet vinyl over 5/8" plywood 

CEILING 

-- Painted 1/2" gypsum wallboard 

WALLS 

-- Painted 1/2" gypsum wallboard 

MOLDING 

-- Base - painted 1 3/4" x 3/4" pine 

HEATING 

-- Electric hot water - baseboard units at NE corner 

4'0" strip EW, 6'0" strip NS 
-- Stove flue opening in ceiling alona N wall 
LIGHTING 

-- (3) porcelain receptacles with incandescent bulbs 
FEATURES 
-- Sink cabinet NW corner, 33" high, 6'0" EW, 2'0" NS; 

sink 33" x 22" double compartment, aluminum 
-- Upper and lower wall cabinets along S wall 
-- Broom closet at SW corner 
-- All windows have drapes and shades with hardware 

PORCH (REAR ADDITION) 
DIMENSIONS 

.. EW 4'4" NS lO'O" ceiling slopes 6" NS 
FLOOR 

-- Painted 1 1/2" plywood 
CEILING 
--2x4 and 2x6 wood frame with corrugated green 

fiberglass panels; 1'9" overhang EW 
RAILING 

— Top rail 2x4 1 aid f 1 at 
--4x4 corner columns 
LIGHTING 
-- Wall mounted porcelain receptacle 77 1/2" (above 

deck) to N of door 
FEATURES 
-- Step to grade 



98 



SECOND FLOOR ROOM BY ROOM DESCRIPTION 



BEDROOM H2 
DIMENSIONS 

-- EW 13*10" NS 10*6" ceiling 8'1 1" 
FLOOR 
-- 3 1/4" wide tongue-and-groove softwood flooring, 

unfinished, in EW direction ' 

CEILING 
-- 5 1/8" x 7/8" wide shiplap cedar ceiling boards, 

unfinished, in NS direction 
WALLS 
-- 8 3/4" wide x 7/8" shiplap cedar wall boards, 

unfinished, horizontal on W wall 
-- 5 1/8" wide x 7/8" shiplap cedar wall boards, 

unfinished, horizontal on N, S, E walls 
MOLDING 
--No base 

-- No door moldings on hall side 
HEATING 
-- 6" diameter opening for chimney flue, 2 '4" below 

ceiling on E wall (lines up with chimney directly E 

of wal 1 in bedroom #3) 
LIGHTING 

— No electrical service on second floor 
FEATURES 
-- Angled ceiling drop at NW corner for roof framing, 

49" EW, 50" NS, ceiling height at low point of drop 

6' 3 1/4" 
-- Wall opening in E wall to bedroom #3, 28" wide by 

6*6" high, starting 14" S of N wall 
-- Al 1 windows have drapes and shades with hardware 

BEDROOM #3 

DIMENSIONS 

-- EW 13'0" NS 10'6" ceiling 8'1 1" 

-- Alcove EW 5'4" NS 3'2" 

FLOOR 

-- 3 1/4" with tongue-and-groove softwood flooring, 
unfinished, in EW direction 

CEILING 

-- 5 1/8" x 7/8" shiplap cedar ceiling boards, 
unfinished, in NS direction 

-- Angled ceiling drop (knee wall) along E wall down tc 
6 '3" high, projects W 3M1" into room 

WALLS 

-- W wall: exposed studs, no wall finish 

-- S wall: partial wall finish, exposed studs first 26" 
W of doorway, 5 1/8" x 7/8" shiplap cedar 
wall boards, unfinished, horizontal, 
remainder of S wall 

-- E wal 1 : 8 3/4" x 7/8" shiplap cedar wall boards, 
unfinished, horizontal, up to 3'9" off 
floor; 5 1/8" x 7/8" shiplap cedar wall 
boards, unfinished, horizontal, 3'9" above 
floor to ceiling 

-- N wall: 5 1/8" x 7/8" sniplap cedar wall boards, 
unfinished, horizontal 

-- Alcove area: 

- E wall: similar finishes as E wall of room 

- S wall: 5 1/8" x 7/8" shiplap cedar wall boards, 

unfinished, horizontal 

- W wall: exposed studs, laid flat, no wall finish 
MOLDING 

--No base 

-- No door moldings on hall side 

HEATING 

-- 16 1/2" x 16 1/2" brick chimney on W wall, recessed 

into wal 1 space 
-- 6" diameter hole for stove flue, 6'7" up from floor, 

filled in with mortar, on E side 
LIGHTING 

-- No electrical service on second floor 
FEATURES 
-- Wall opening in W wall to bedroom #2, 2'8" wide by 

6'6" high, starting 14" S of N wall 
-- E wall window is a shorter and narrower version of 

typical house window to accommodate knee wall 
-- N wall window has drape and shade with hardware 



BE0R00M #4 
DIMENSIONS 

-- EW 12' 10" NS 10*4" ceiling 8'11" 
-- Alcove EW 5'4" NS 3'2" 
FLOOR 
-- 3 1/4" wide tongue-and-groove softwood flooring, 

unfinished, in EW direction 
CEILING 
-- 5 1/8" x 7/8" shiplap cedar ceiling boards, 

unfinished, in NS direction 

— Angled ceiling drop (knee wall) along E wall down to 
6 '3" high, projects W 3*1 1 " into room 

WALLS 

-- W wall: exposed studs, no wall finish 

-- N wall: partial wall finish, exposed studs first 26" 
W of doorway, 5 1/8" x 7/8" shiplap cedar 
wall boards, unfinished, horizontal, 
remainder of S wal 1 

-- E wall: 8 3/4" x 7/8" shiplap cedar wall boards, 
unfinished, horizontal, up to 3'9" off 
floor; 5 1/8" x 7/8" shiplap cedar wall 
boards, unfinished, horizontal, 3'9" above 
floor to ceiling 

-- S wall: 8 3/4" x 7/8" sniplap cedar wall boards, 
unfinished, horizontal 

-- Alcove area: 

- E wall: similar finishes as E wall of room 

- N & W wall: exposed studs, laid flat, no wall 

finishes 
MOLDINGS 
--No base 

-- No door moldings on hall side 
HEATING 

-- Original brick chimney has been removed from W wall 
leaving a floor and ceiling opening 

- Floor opening, 17" x 17", starting 3'5" N of S wall 

- Ceiling opening is directly above floor opening 
and of a simi lar s ize 

- 10" square hole in W wall to accommodate flue pipe 
from bedroom #5 to original chimney, bottom of 
opening 6'6" above floor, opening lines up with 
chimney openings in floor ana ceiling 

FEATURES 

— Wall opening in W wall to bedroom #5, 26" wide by 
6'6" high starting 15" N of S wall 

-- S wall window has drape and shade with hardware 
-- E wall window is a shorter and narrower version of 
typical house window to accommodate knee wall 

BEDROOM #5 
DIMENSIONS 

— EW 14'0" NS 10'4" ceiling 8'1 1" 
FLOOR 

-- 3 1/4" wide tongue-and-groove softwood flooring, 

unfinished, in EW direction 
CEILING 

— 5 1/8" x 7/8" shiplap cedar ceiling boards, 
unfinished, in NS direction 

WALLS 

-- N, E wall 5 1/4" wide x 7/8" shiplap cedar boards, 

unfinished, horizontal 
-- S, W wall 8 3/4" wide x 7/8" shiplap cedar boards, 

unfinished, horizontal 
MOLDING 
-- No base 

-- No door moldings on hall side 
HEATING 
-- 10" x 10" opening for chimney flue, top of opening, 

1'7" below ceiling on £ wall, lines up with floor 

and ceiling openings directly to the E in bedroom #4 
FEATURES 
-- Angled ceiling drop at SW corner for roof framing, 

4 9" EW 50" NS 
-- Ceiling height at low point of drop 6' 3 1/4" 
-- Wall opening in E wall to bedroom #4, 26" wide by 

6'6" high starting 15" N of S wall 
-- All windows have drapes and shade with hardware 



99 



o 





z 
< 



O 

o 



Q 

Z 

o 
o 

LU 



CM 

LP 






100 



IALLWAY 

DIMENSIONS 

— EW 2T8" NS 5'6" ceiling 8'11" 
FLOOR 

-- 3 1/4" wide tongue-and-groove softwood flooring, 

unfinished, in EW direction 
CEILING 
-- 5 1/8" x 7/3" shiplap cedar ceiling boards, 

unfinished, in NS direction 
WALLS 
-- 8 3/4" wide x 7/8" shiplap cedar wall boards, 

unfinished, horizontal 
MOLDING 

— No base 

— No moldings on hall side of doors 
FEATURES 

-- Stair opening 8' 10" EW, 2'8" NS, located lO'll" E of 
W wall and 10" S of N wall 

— Railing around stair opening is made up of 2 x 2 
posts and a 2 x 2 upper and middle rail on the S and 
E sides, top of railing is 26 1/2" above floor; N 
side of stair opening has a 2 x 2 diagonal member 
from top of NE corner post to second floor 4 '6" W of 
E end 



STAIRWAY 

DIMENSIONS 

— Run 12' 7 3/4" Rise 9' 10 3/4" NS 2'6" 

-- Ceiling: Lower landing 9' 1 1/2"; soffit varies; W 

of soffit, open to second floor exiling 
FLOOR 

-- Treads and risers 1 x pine 
-- Stringer 1 x pine 
-- Nosing projects = 2 3/4" 
-- 19 R at 6 1/4" 18 T at 8 7/16" 
CEILING 
-- Painted wallpaper over 1 x 9 shiplap cedar wall 

boards, unfinished, horizontal 
WALLS 
-- Painted wallpaper over 1 x 9 shiplap cedar wall 

boards, unfinished, horizontal 
LIGHTING 
-- Porcelain receptacle with incandescent bulb at lower 

landing 
FEATURES 

— Rod and drape at lower soffit area serves as doorway 



'ORCH 

DIMENSIONS 

-- EW 28'6" NS 6 '8" ceiling varies 

FLOOR 

— Painted 3 1/4" wide tongue-and-groove softwood 

beaded board (pattern down) faces in EW direction, 

with slope down to W overhangs 2" on all (3) sides 
CEILING 
-- Painted 5 1/4" wide tongue-and-groove beaded board 

in EW direction 
RAILING 
-- Painted 2x4 top rail (laid flat between 4x4 

columns) hat 2'7" above deck 
-- 1 1/4 x 1 1/4 balusters at 6" on center 
--2x6 bottom rail (vertical - x a 

columns) with beveled top 
FEATURES 
-- Board and batten gable end ^corative pattern 



101 



DOOR SCHEDULE 



/ 


D 


D 









Door 










Lite 


No. 


Type 


Size 


Description 


Size 


01 


A 


3 , 0"x7 , 0"xl-l/2" 


Wood 


Panel 




01(a 


I B 


3'0"x6'8"xl-l/8" 


Wood 


Panel 




02 


D 


2'7-l/2"x6'7"xl-3/16" 


Wood 


Panel 




03 


D 


2'7-l/2"x6 , 7"xl-3/16" 


Wood 


Panel 




04 


D 


2'7-l/2"x6 , 6-3/4"xl-l/2" 


Wood 


Panel 




05 


I 


ri-l/2"x6'4"x3/4" 


3/4" 


Plywood 




06 


I 


2'3"x5 , 9"x3/4" 


3/4" 


Plywood 




07 


D 


2 , 7-l/2"x6'6-l/2"xl-l/2" 


Wood 


Panel 





08 D 2'7-l/2"x6'6-l/4"xl-l/2" Wood Panel 

09 E 2'7-3/4"x6'7-l/4"xl-l/2" Wood Panel 



10 



D 2'2"x6'6-l/2"xl-3/8" 



11 D 2'5-3/8"x6'6-3/8"xl-l/2" 

12 F 2'8"x6'7-l/2"xl-l/4" 
12(a) G 2'8"x6'7-l/2"xl" 

13 D 2'7-l/2"x6 , 5-l/2 ,, xl-l/2" 

14 E 2'8"x6 , 7-l/2"xl-l/2" 

15 H 2'7-l/2"x6'7-l/2"xl" 



Wood Panel 

Wood Panel 
Wood Panel 
Wood Panel 
Wood Panel 
Wood Panel 

Wood Panel 



2'x2'2-5/8" 



Remarks 

Appl ied molding* 
Screen door* 
Recessed panel* 
Recessed panel* 
Recessed panel* 



Recessed panel 

Historic trim W side onl. 

Recessed panel* 

Raised panel with 
recessed center* 

Historic door; recessed 
Historic trim W side onl. 

Historic door; recessed 



Screen door 

Recessed panel 

Raised panel with recess* 
center* (no hall trim) 

Raised panel with bevelei 
edge* (no hal 1 trim) 



102 





D 2'7-l/2"x6 , 7-l/2"xl-l/8" Wood Panel 
D 2 , 7-3/4"x6'7-l/2"xl-l/2" Wood Panel 
C 2 , 8"x6'8"xl-l/2" Wood Panel 



Varies 



Recessed panel* (no hall trim) 
Recessed panel* (no hall trim) 



'Historic trim on both sides (except as noted) 



WINDOW SCHEDULE 



j \ 








A 


& B 


D-G 








C 


SIMILAR 






Type 


Size 




Description 


Lite Size 


Remarks 


A 


2'8"x5'10" 




DH 2/2 Wood 


l'2"x2'8" 




B 


5'8-l/2"x5 , 10" 




DH 2/2 Wood 


r2"x2'8" 


Double Window 


C 


2■4-l/2 ,, x3 , 10 , 




DH 2/2 Wood 


T0"xl'8" 




D 


3'0"x3'0" 




SI ider -Metal 


l«4"x2'10" 




E 


5'0"x3'0" 




Slider-Metal 


2'4"x2'10" 




F 


5'0"x4'0" 




SI ider -Metal 


2'4"xl'10" 




G 


3'0"x2'6" 




Slider-Metal 


r4"x2'4" 





103 



> 

LU 
LU 



Q 
LU 
I 
O 
CO 

o 

Q 

Z 

§ 



QC 
O 
O 
Q 




QC 
LU 
CO 

Z 

QC 
O 

o 

Q 



LU 
Q_ 

> 



5 

o 

Q 

z 




104 



>- 

LU 
LU 



Q 
LU 

X 

o 

CO 

o 
o 

z 

Q 



CL 
O 
O 

Q 






LT 


LU 


z 


LU 


CL 


< 

.J 


CD 


> 


CL 


5 


1- 


DC 

o 


3 
Z 


5 


o 

LL 


CO 

O 


o 

Q 

z 


Q 


O 




Z 


o 


5 


o 






o 

LU 
CO 


© 


3 



105 



PART FOUR 
BUILDING DEVELOPMENT 




Target Objectives for Building Development 

In response to a decision to adaptively reuse the Crook House in its 
present location, the Cultural Resources Division, Pacific Northwest 
Region, initiated a meeting of all involved National Park Service 
personnel to discuss possible development objectives. The meeting 
included the following regional office participants: Regional Historian, 
Regional Historical Architect, Regional Curator, Regional Chief of 
Interpretation, Regional Chief of Maintenance and Engineering, project 
architect, project architectural technician, and project historian; and 
the following San Juan Island National Historical Park staff 
participants: Superintendent, Chief Ranger, and Interpretive Ranger. 

The discussion focused on five major areas of concern: Site, Visitor 
Center, Staff, Curatorial, and Long-term Plan. 



109 



Site 

The conversion of the Crook House site from an isolated early island 
farmstead to a visitor facility for English Camp will put new demands on 
the existing cultural and historic landscapes. Increased usage will 
require development of new approaches and viewsheds and handicapped 
access. The visitor's first encounter will now be focused on the house 
and its environs, a major change from the current entry sequence. 

-- Existing parking facilities need to be expanded to accommodate a bus 
turnaround and parking area and the projected increased visitor 
usage. 
-- A new entry path needs to be established from the expanded parking 
lot area to the Crook House, which will serve as the English Camp 
visitor contact facility. 
-- Visitor toilet facilities need to be established in closer proximity 

to the park entry area; additional capacity is required. 
-- Further study of the historic landscape of English Camp is needed, 
particularly of the Crook House as a specific site within the entire 
camp context. 
-- A new access trail needs to be established from the proposed visitor 

contact facility to English Camp. 
-- Physical access down the steep slope to the west of the Crook House 
should be closed, but visual continuity with English Camp should be 
maintained. 
-- Site drainage around the Crook House needs to be improved. 
— Debris littering the ground areas around the Crook House should be 
cleaned up and the two outbuildings removed. Debris to be examined 
by Regional Archeologist prior to removal from present context. 

110 



-- The masonry ruins to the southwest of the Crook House require 
immediate stabilization. 

Visitor Center 

The present visitor contact facilities in the restored barracks at 
English Camp are not adequate to serve the number of the projected 
visitors as stated in the San Juan Island National Historical Park, 
Interpretive Prospectus , prepared by Harpers Ferry Center, Harpers Ferry, 
West Virginia (1984). 

The Crook House will be adaptively used in its present location as the 
English Camp visitor contact facility. 

-- The contact facility will contain an information lobby and 

association sales area, and an exhibit area. Approximately 600 
square feet of space will be needed for these functions. The space 
need not be in one continuous area, but should be on one level. 
Specific exhibit requirements are stated in the Interpretive 
Prospectus. 
-- There are no plans for audio-visual equipment installation at this 

t i me . 
-- A small storage space should be provided for maintenance and 

cleaning supplies. 
-- Appropriate fire and security systems should be provided. 
-- Long-term plans should include public restroom facilities accessible 

on a 24-hour basis. 
-- Both the visitor contact facility and the restrooms should be 
handicapped accessible. 



Ill 



Staff (Ranger Day Use) 

Placement of staff-use areas must consider ease of operation for the 
limited staffing available at the Crook House. Under most conditions one 
ranger will be on duty, with a maximum of two during times of heavy park 
usage. 

— The Crook House should serve as the ranger control station for the 
entire English Camp site. A single ranger should be able to monitor 
visitor access to the camp and visitor center. 
-- A private workspace for staff use should be provided within close 
proximity to the control station. Workspace to contain a desk, 
chair, and file cabinet. 
-- A restroom facility for staff use only should be provided. 
-- A small food preparation area for staff day use should be provided, 
possibly in conjunction with the private workspace area. 

Curatorial 



Permanent and secure curatorial facilities need to be established 
for a variety of park artifacts. The existing English Camp collections 
will be supplemented by additional Crook and archeological materials used 
for interpretive research. 

-- A permanent curatorial storage space for English Camp artifacts 
should be established. Approximately 300 square feet of space is 
required for current and future curatorial needs. 
-- Interior wall and ceiling finishes are to be gypsum drywall, painted 
— Locks for all access doors to space should be keyed separately from 
the master key system. Access to the space is to be limited. 



112 






— All storage is to be in freestanding metal cabinets, set on a 
2"-by-4" base. 

— All windows are to be provided with appropriate solar screening 
devices (specified by curator). 

-- Lighting is to be provided by flourescent type fixtures with UV 

filters. 
-- Electrical outlets will be provided per code requirements at 42" 

above the floor. 
-- Fire and security systems must be included. Alarms should be both 

audible and hard-wired. 
-- No window barriers are required. 
-- A ventilation fan system is needed to exhaust storage case 

preservatives from work areas. 

Long-Term 

All proposed alterations to the Crook House should be consistent 
with long-term plans for its use by the park. Any existing planning 
documents should be amended to include new adaptive reuse decisions. 
-- Permanent visitor restroom facilities should be provided in an 
appropriate location site. This work should be coordinated by the 
Cultural Resources Division. 
-- Hot and cold water supply lines and a utility wash-basin should be 

provided in the curatorial spaces. 
-- Picnic facilities could be developed in close proximity to the 
visitor center. 



113 



The appropriateness of temperature control in the curatorial space 
will be further studied by the Regional Curator. 



114 



Recommended Approaches 

Site 

Initial visitor contact at English Camp will take place at the edge 
of the expanded parking area. Pathways should be developed in a 
sensitive manner directing movement toward the Crook House along both 
historic and new trails. Interesting physical features and views of the 
site should be examined for inclusion in any plans. 

-- Existing parking lot facilities will be expanded to the east to 
accommodate increased visitor usage. Parking will include an area 
for bus turnaround and bus-only parking. 

- Parking lot layout, carried out by the Pacific Northwest Region, 
Maintenance and Engineering Division, should be coordinated with 
the Cultural Resources Division for comments and suggestions for 
retaining historic site integrity. 



115 



HISTORIC ENGLISH CAMP STRUCTURES: 

1 BLOCK HOUSE 

2 FLAGPOLE 

3 FORMAL GARDEN 

4 BARRACKS (Visitor Center) 

5 COMMISSARY 

6 HOSPITAL 

7 MASONRY RUIN 



CROOK FARM STRUCTURES: 

8 CROOK HOUSE 

9 SHED 

10 SHED 

11 STORE HOUSE (Dismantled) 

12 GARAGE (Dismantled) 

13 BARN (Dismantled) 

14 WEST POULTRY HOUSE (Dismantled) 

15 EAST POULTRY HOUSE (Dismantled) 

16 SMALL SHED (Dismantled) 

17 SAW MILL (Ruins) 

18 SMOKE HOUSE 

19 GRANARY 

20 METAL SHED 



RECOMMENDED SITE DEVELOPMENT 

FIGURE 53 




SITE PLA 



MAIN ACCESS ROAD 



116 



A new entry path from the parking lot to the Crook House should be 
established roughly paralleling the old Crook Farm entry road and 
approach the house between the masonry ruins and the house's 
southwest corner. The main entry is to be at the west end. The 
masonry ruins could be used as an interpretive site. 

- The new path should be handicapped accessible, with provision for 
a ramped handicapped entrance into the Crook House at the east 
entrance. 

- The existing English Camp entry trail should be abandoned, except 
for maintenance use, as soon as the new entry trail is established, 

Two temporary vault toilets along the parking lot edge should be 
installed until such time as permanent restroom facilities are 
established. Siting of toilets should be coordinated with the 
overall development plan. 

Trees and vegetation around Crook House that block the desired views 
of English Camp should be removed. Coordinate all site work with 
the Cultural Resources Division. 

- Trim large maple to the north of house to alleviate maintenance 
problems of leaf and branch deposits on flat roof section. 

- Establish regular maintenance program for grounds around Crook 
House. 

- Clear bush and vegetation away from house a minimum of ten feet on 
all sides—coordinate clearing program with an historic landscape 
study. 



117 



-- A new trail should be established down to English Camp from the 
Crook House and should follow existing contour lines, gradually 
descending the slope and moving northwest. The trail should avoid 
the steep hillside directly to the west of the house. 

-- The current hillside access to the west of Crook House to English 
Camp should be blocked off with a low split rail fence and dense 
planting to discourage its use. 

Visitor Center 

The adaptive reuse of the Crook House will provide an interesting 
backdrop for interpretive displays of English Camp as well as post and 
pre-camp events. Its location is an ideal starting point for visitors 
entering the park, and overall development plans should reflect this. 

The visitor contact facility should be developed on the ground floor 
of the Crook House. Existing first floor area and structural systems are 
sufficient to handle anticipated visitor use though a theoretical 
structural analysis might find supporting members somewhat light. Entry 
and exit should occur through the west end. This offers visitors a 
maximum site exposure from a single, easily accessible vista point. The 
view from the house should be considered in developing any interpretive 
materials. 

Due to code considerations, no public usage of the second floor 
should be permitted. Existing first floor porch railings permit 
uninterrupted views and should be retained as part of the historical 
character of the house. 

All existing historical interior room arrangements should be 
maintained in adaptively reusing the Crook House. Installation of 

118 



finishes to meet code should be coordinated with the Regional Historical 
Architect. 

-- The information lobby/association sales area should be developed in 

the present living room space, in conjunction with the main entry. 

Extra storage of sales materials could take place in the closet 

under the staircase, which is reached through the dining room. 
— Exhibit areas can be developed in the parlor, dining room, and 

bedroom #1, as well as any remaining living room space. Care should 

be exercised to retain existing architectural features. 
-- Displaying a sample of historic finishes from each room would add an 

interesting interpretive viewpoint to Crook's use of the house and 

its changes over time. 
-- An attempt should be made to include the masonry ruins in any 

interpretive development. 
-- The west porch steps and balustrade should be rebuilt according to 

historical photos. 

Staff 

Staff use of Crook house space will be zoned into private, 

semi-private, and public areas. The relationships between compatible 

uses must be recognized in planning efforts. 

-- A staff desk/counter should be set up in the northwest corner of the 
living room along the west windows. This location would then serve 
as a visual control point for the Crook House, the site entry path, 
and offer a broad view of English Camp. Selective trimming and 
removal of trees and vegetation will be necessary to increase views, 
as mentioned under site consideration. 

119 



Q 

III CO 
Q. CO 
CL LU 
< O 
O O 

7^ < 



^ 



* L _ > * 

,1 ^l-4 — A.— I 






LU 

Q. 

O 

-I 
LU 
> 
LU 
O 

O 



CD 

Q 
LU 
Q 

Z 
LU 





«tf 


o 


LfJ 


o 


LxJ 


111 




CO 


► — < 




i i 



a 



m 

0. 



Ill 

I- 
< 

> 

cr 
a. 



id 
i- 
< 

> 

0- 

I 

LU 
CO 



»* 



LU 

Q. 

O 

-I 
LU 
> 
LU 
Q 

O 

Z 

Q 



Q 
LU 

Q 
Z 
LU 



o 

o 

LU 



ID 
LO 



UJ 



o 





z 
< 



o 

o 



Q 

z 
o 
o 

HI 
CO 



121 



-- A private workspace for staff use should be established in the 
existing kitchen area. This space is in close enough proximity to 
the entry area to hear any visitors entering the house. The 
existing sink should be incorporated into this space. 

-- The existing bathroom facility in the house should be renovated for 
staff use only and kept locked at all times. Existing fixtures can 
be brought up to working condition. This bathroom space may be 
considered for use by handicapped visitors until permanent 
facilities are established. 

-- There is to be no staff use of the second floor porch except for 
routine maintenance due to insufficient load-bearing capacity and 
lack of lateral resistance. 

Curatorial 



Curatorial storage needs to be permanently located in a private, 
staff -only area. A long-term collection management plan is being 
prepared, and proper care should be given to existing and future 
artifacts. 

-- Bedrooms #4 and #5 on the second floor should be renovated into 

permanent curatorial storage space for the park's artifact 

collection. The space insures limited access in a private zone with 

opportunities for limited expansion if needed. 
-- Access to this space is to be limited and doors are to be keyed 

separately from the rest of the house. To prevent unauthorized 

access, all doors to this space shall be strengthened and hinges 

pinned on the interior side. 



122 



-- A framed opening shall be provided between the two bedrooms large 
enough to accommodate the curatorial storage cabinets. 

-- There should be no visible window barriers that alter the historic 
building character. 

-- Structural loading must be taken into consideration when arranging 
storage cabinets. 

Long-Term 

Overall English Camp planning objectives need to consider the reuse 
of the Crook House and related site impacts. Interpretive themes need to 
be reevaluated in light of current research. 

-- The existing addition to the Crook House should be demolished, and 

the original house exterior restored on the basis of further 

historic research. 
-- Increased usage of the Crook House as a visitor center will have a 

considerable impact on the historic building fabric and its 

environs. Any long-term planning should consider such impacts and 

study the site for other possible permanent restroom locations, away 

from the house. Any planned facilities should be handicapped 

accessible. 
-- The temporary vault toilets should be abandoned when the permanent 

facilities are established. 
-- Any further additions to the existing house shoula be prohibited. 
-- The possibilities of providing hot and cold water supply lines and a 

utility wash-basin in the curatorial storage space should be 

examined. 



123 



— The west porch steps should be rebuilt according to historical 
photos. 

-- The need to develop picnic and day use facilities should be reviewed 
in conjunction with the new English Camp access trail to the 
northwest of Crook House. Plans should harmonize with overall site 
development objectives. 

— A cyclical maintenance plan should be developed for Crook House. 

— The south chimney exterior should be reconstructed in its historic 
location. 

-- The Cultural Resources Division should continue to provide a 
consulting and coordinating role in site development. 

Areas of Future Study 

-- Historical landscape of English Camp, including the Crook House site. 
-- Paint and wallpaper analysis of the Crook House. 
-- The appropriateness of installing a temperature control system in 
the curatorial storage space. 



124 



Rehabilitation to Meet Program Requirements 

All rehabilitation to meet program and code needs of the Crook House 
will take place in compliance with NPS-28 Standards for Historic and 
Prehistoric Structures. 

Every reasonable effort will be made to use the Crook House adaptively 
in such a way as to require minimal alterations to the structure and its 
environment and to its historic contents. 

The distinguishing qualities and character of the structure and its 
environment will not be destroyed, nor will historic materials or 
architectural features be altered or removed. 

All distinctive stylistic features of the house will be treated 
sensitively and preserved. Deteriorated architectural features such as 
the porch brackets, will be repaired rather than replaced wherever 
possible. 



125 



New or replacement fabric will be identified or permanently marked 
in an unobtrusive manner to distinguish it from original fabric. The 
manner of identification and location of marks shall be recorded in park 
files. 

DIV. 1: GENERAL WORK 
-- All work to meet the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for 

Rehabil itation and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings. 
-- All work to meet National Park Service compliance guidelines. 
— All work to meet all applicable code requirements. 
-- Work requiring the assistance of the Regional Historical Architect 

or other outside specialist is defined in this guide. 

DIV. 2: SITE WORK 

Selective Demolition for Remodeling 

Demolition work required for the repair and rehabilitation on 
historic structures does not call for a "wrecking ball" approach. 
Proceed with demolition only after a careful analysis of any salvageable 
material has been made. Care must be taken to insure that only work and 
material that are non-historic are removed or destroyed. (Remove all 
pieces in the reverse order in which they are applied; salvage and retain 
all intact historic pieces for use in patching or restoration.) 
-- Repair materials instead of replacing them whenever possible. 
-- Demolition procedures should be undertaken under the supervision of 

the Regional Historical Architect. 
-- Conduct a survey of salvageable historic materials before demolition 
begins in order to ascertain which building materials can be 

126 



reused. These materials should include bricks and stones, woodwork 
including siding, doors and windows, iron and metal parts, fixtures 
and door and window hardware. 
-- Photograph any structure or part of a structure to be demolished 
before demolition. Photographs should include interior and exterior 
views. 

Demolition Process 

-- Identify all salvageable materials and carefully remove them from 

the structure in a manner that does no damage to them and other 

materials. 
-- Regular demolition procedure can begin after all salvageable 

materials have been removed. Care must be taken to insure that no 

damage to other parts of the structure is incurred. 
-- No building debris should be left against the building after 

demolition. 
— After the area has been cleared and demolition is completed, a 

survey should be taken to ascertain the need for both immediate and 

long range water and moisture protection. 
-- Remove two sheds to southeast of Crook house, and clean up remaining 

debris and surrounding grounds. Regional Archeologist to review all 

salvage and debris before disposal. 
-- Remove all chipboard and accoustical tile in original house. 
-- Remove closet construction in parlor. 
-- Remove interior stair construction. 



127 



Vegetation Control 

— Prune or remove overgrown trees to insure abatement of hazard to 
house and obstruction of selective views. Verify all work with 
Regional Historian. 

-- Remove all vegetation in contact with foundation or sides of 
building. 

Site Grading 

Ideally, ground surfaces around any building should have a minimum 
four percent slope down away from the building so that any surface water 
is channeled away to a satisfactory drain or water course. 

— Slope earthwork away from building walls and foundations. 

— Fill depressions, holes, or shallow areas at building walls and 
foundations with clean top soil. Allow soil to settle and refill. 

-- Every precaution should be taken to insure that there is no standing 
water at building edges or beneath buildings raised on piers and 
that water drains away from the building. 

-- Insure proper drainage of downspout discharge. 

-- Insure proper drainage of spring runoff area to east of house. 

DIV. 4: MASONRY 

-- Repoint all exterior and interior chimney brick after careful 

analysis of existing mortar conditions. All work to be done under 
the supervision of the Regional Historical Architect. 

— Stabilize masonry ruins under the supervision of the Regional 
Historical Architect. 



128 



DIV. 6: WOOD 

Exterior 

-- Replace rot damaged girder section, porch floor joists, and porch 
deck areas in southwest corner with pressure treated lumber, 
properly detailed to prevent reoccurrence of problem. 

— Replace damaged 4x4 column at southwest corner to match existing. 
-- Replace damaged or rotted exterior trim, skirting, and siding- to 

match existing. 
-- Repair or replace damaged decorative porch brackets to match 

existing. 
-- Install a drip board at base of bevel edge siding to channel water 

away from skirting below. 
-- Where main girders are notched from previous foundation work, 

provide appropriate preservation treatment. 

— Add new rafters to flat roof area of addition to increase drainage. 
-- Provide structural framing hardware at all toenail conditions on 

second floor porch; use only anti-corrosive material. 
-- Renail second floor porch deck as needed. 
-- Inspect all porch railings for soundness. Discard rotted or 

deteriorated members, and construct replacements to match. Renail 

as needed. 
-- Renail soffit boards as needed. 
-- Rebuild west porch steps and balustrade. 

Interior 

— Insure proper reveal of interior trims when new wallboard finish is 
applied by providing appropriate extensions. 

129 



— Frame rough wall opening between bedrooms #4 and #5, and install 
door frame. Location to be decided by Regional Historical Architect, 

-- Repair all existing flue openings in floors and ceilings with 
matching materials. 

-- Construct new interior stairway to meet code requirements. 

DIV. 7: THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTION 

-- Remove existing roofing materials down to the roof deck. Inspect 

substrate for deterioration and repair as required. 
-- Install new asphalt roof shingles and asphalt roofing felt. 
-- Coordinate installation of shingles with flashing and other 

adjoining work to ensure proper sequencing. 
-- All nails to be hot dipped zinc coated or aluminum of sufficient 

length to penetrate at least 1/2" into roof sheathing. 
-- Install required edge and drip flashings at all eaves. 
-- Replace all roof and chimney flashings. 
-- Inspect and repair as needed flashing between existing building and 

addition. 
-- Caulk and seal all exterior joints with sealant. 
-- Provide ventilation to all attic, roof, eave, soffit, and other 

building void spaces to meet code standards. 
-- Equip vents and chimney with storm proof louvers and insect screens 

in removable frames to bar moisture, insects, and animals. 
-- Remove existing gutters and replace with new, properly-sized gutters 

matching existing style. Check all downspouts for proper drainage 

and replace hangers. Provide at least 1/2" clearance between 

building and downspouts. 

130 



Insulation and Vapor Barrier 

Attic - Six-inch fiberglass batts; install six mil polyethelene vapor 

barrier directly over second floor ceiling boards before gypsum 
drywall ceiling finish is applied. 

Walls - Remove top two wall boards, or as many as required to fill wall 
cavity with mineral wool insulation. Number and key boards so 
that the pieces can be replaced in their exact, original 
location. Install six mil visquine vapor barrier directly over 
wall boards or wall boards and wallpaper before gypsum drywall 
wall finish is applied. 

DIV. 8: DOORS AND WINDOWS 

— Remove and recondition existing doors and windows. 

— Install a high-grade weather stripping system on doors and windows. 
Felt weather stripping should be avoided since it tends to retain 
moisture. 

-- Install thresholds. 

— Replace all exterior and interior locks with a master keyed system 
(excluding curatorial spaces which are to be keyed separately). 

-- Visible hardware must conform with historic examples. 

— New butts for all doors. 

-- Restore frames and add to interior reveal to compensate for 

additional wall finish thickness. 
-- Second floor porch door to have a cylinder only-no knob, to 

discourage use by all park personnel except for regular maintenance. 
-- Access doors to curatorial space should have the panels filled on 

the interior room side and the entire door then covered with a layer 

131 



of 5/8" gypsum drywall. All hinges to be on the interior side or 
pinned. 

DIV. 9: FINISHES 

-- Remove existing interior finishes to wood flooring and wallpaper 
(ceiling and wall). Original wallpaper and paint samples should be 
taken prior to removal under the direction of the Regional 
Historical Architect. After installing insulation and vapor 
barrier, finish with 5/8" gypsum drywall on walls and ceiling. 
-- At the time wood floors are re-exposed recommendations should be 
made by the Regional Historical Architect for their rehabilitation 
or replacement. 

Painting 

-- All paint application and removal procedures to be specified by the 
Regional Historical Architect. All colors to be specified by 
Regional Historical Architect. 

DIV. 10: SPECIALTIES 
Louvers and Vents 

— Equip all louvers and vents with substantial removable insect 

screening. 
-- Paint out louvers and vents the same color used on the surrounding 
wall as applicable. 



132 



Pest Control 
Openings: 

- Repair exterior finish and trim; install new blocking and trim as 
required to close all openings. 

- Screen all louvers and vents with heavy aluminum or bronze screens, 
Wood Damaging Insects: 

- Keep wood dry. 

- Keep surfaces well-maintained and finished. 

- Preservative treat or backprime all exterior finish woodwork or 
mil lwork. 

- Exterminate local infestations promptly. 

- Diligently perform cyclical maintenance of wood exterior surfaces. 

Fire Extinguishers 

-- Locate to be as inconspicuous as consistent with good fire 
prevention practices. 

DIV. 12: FURNISHINGS 
-- Select historically appropriate window drapes and shades. 

DIV. 15: MECHANICAL 

-- Check condition of all existing plumbing systems. 
-- Recondition existing plumbing fixtures in bathroom and kitchen for 
reuse. 



133 



Roof Drainage: 

- All gutters and leaders must be checked annually to insure that all 
sections are properly fitted, that no breaks or tears are present, 
and that they are free of debris. 

- Inspection should insure that any replacement is large enough to 
handle water discharge and that the pitch is sufficient in order to 
carry off the water adequately. 

- All gutter outlets must be fitted with appropriate copper wire 
strainers of the basket-type set into the leaders loosely. 

Heating: 

- Install new electric baseboard heating system as inconspicuously as 
possible. 

- Install a ventilation fan system for curatorial storage spaces that 
exhausts through attic space and out attic vents. 

DIV. 16: ELECTRICAL 

-- Remove all existing electric wiring and service entrance. 

-- Install new underground 200 amp service, and new branch circuits for 

lighting and utilities. 
-- Provide a hard-wired smoke and fire detection system and alarm 

system. Include an audible alarm with system. 
-- Coordinate exhibit lighting requirements with regional office 

interpretive staff. All permanent lighting to be historically 

appropriate. 
-- Run any wiring installations concealed within the construction or as 

inconspicuously as possible. 



134 



Install new lighting fixtures as specified by the Regional 
Historical Architect. 

All lighting fixtures in curatorial storage space are to be boxed-in 
flourescents with UV filters. 



135 




Q in 




OJ 



n<f u^^d n 



<x 



136 



c^ o 



CO 
LU 



I- 
< 



CD 
< 
I 
LU 
CL 



O 



CD 





z 
< 

-j 

Q. 

CL 

O 

o 

_l 

LL 

Q 

O 
O 

LU 
CO 



i— i cm m 



<f 



lo vD r^ 



137 



APPENDICES 




APPENDIX A 
Statement of Significance 

The Crook House appears to be eligible for the National Register of 
Historic Places. The house and its site, overlapping and inextricably 
connected with the historic site of English Camp, meet three of the four 
Criteria of Eligibility for the National Register. 

Criterion A : The Crook House and its site contributes to our 
understanding of a broad pattern of American history at the regional and 
local levels. 

Regionally, the homestead settlement of William Crook and tots family 
is characteristic of late settlement patterns in the Pacific Northwest, 
where foreign and native-born individuals traveled great distances to 
establish new homes and prove their claims through development of the 
land. Unlike many of his neighbors, however, Crook cleared land and 
re-used and adapted buildings already on site, establishing a unique 
connection with the historic past that continues to this day. 

Locally, the Crook family farm was typical of early San Juan Island 
farms, deriving income from fruit production and sheep raising. The 
present site shows the evolutionary development of a San Juan farm, with 
a road, clearings, and some fruit trees left from its earliest 
establishment by William Crook, through the changes brought about after 
the turn-of-the-century by the family's second generation, with the 
construction of the Crook House and such farm outbuildings as a 
smokehouse and granary. 

Criterion B : As he advanced in years, James Crook's local reputation 
as an inventor grew. According to his sister, his "whole life" was 
building and inventing, creating gadgets and machines that would make 

141 



life on the farm more efficient. His most noted invention, now in 
possession of the San Juan County Historical Society, is a carding 
machine, an example of the ingenuity and creativity which helped 
establish his reputation on the island. 

In addition, his father, William Crook, has been credited with 
building a number of farmhouses on San Juan Island, although these have 
not been identified. His association with the construction of these 
buildings makes him a figure of local significance. 

Finally, James and his sisters maintained an active interest in the 
historic site, generating public interest by conducting tours of the 
English Camp buildings and graveyard, and taking steps to preserve and 
maintain some of the structures and the cemetery. They kept the farm and 
site acreage intact until its purchase by the State of Washington and the 
federal government for the establishment of an historic site. 

Criterion C : The Crook House embodies distinctive characteristics of 
a type, period, and method of construction. Its form is representative 
of farmhouses dating from the turn-of-the-century, and is one of under a 
dozen extant and in situ on the island dating prior to 1905. Its major 
architectural features, including its distinctive porch, are intact, and 
the interior has been only slightly altered. The rear kitchen wing, 
added ca. 1960, while obtrusive, does not significantly affect the major 
exterior elevations of the house. 



142 









APPENDIX B 






Abridged Census Material Pertaining to Crook Family 


Census 


Data 








Year 


Name 


Age 


Occupation 


Birthplace 


1880 


William Crook 


40 


House Carpenter 


England 




Mary 


40 


House 


Scotland 




Mary 


11 


Daughter 


Nebraska Territory 




James 


9 


Son 


Wyoming Territory 




Rhoda 


2 


Daughter 


Washington Territory 


1880 


James Crook 


76 


Carpenter, widower 


England 


1885 


William Crook 


50 




England 




Mary 


57 




Scotland 




Mary 


13 




Nebraska Territory 




James 


11 




Wyoming Territory 




Rhoda 


06 




Washington Territory 




Jas. Crook 


80 




England 




John Crook 


52 




England 


1900 


Will iam Crook 


62 


Farmer, widower 


England 




James 


26 


Farm Laborer 


Wyoming Territory 




Rhoda 


20 


Daughter 


Washington Territory 




Mary Davis 


28 


Daughter 


Nebraska Territory 




Herbert H. Davis 32 


Captain, Steamboat 


Michigan 








Son-in-law 






Sources: U.S. 


Department 


of Commerce, Bureau 


of the Census, Tenth 


Census 


of Population: 


: 1880, Pop 


ulation Schedule, Washington State, San 


Juan and Wahkiakum Counties; Washington Territorial 


Auditor's Office, 


Census 


Roll, 1885; U, 


.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 


Twelfth Census Population: 1900 


, Population Scheduli 


2, Washington State, 



San Juan County. 

Notes: 1880 census data lists James Crook, age 76, living in the 
dwelling visited by the census agent right after the Crook family 
dwellers; 1885 census data including "Jas." Crook and John Crook show the 
entire group living in one dwelling — which is approximately the time the 
family would have moved into the barracks in English Camp; 1900 census 
data lists Mary (Crook) and Herbert Davis living with the Crook 
family--the mother, Mary, was dead by then. 



143 



APPENDIX C 



Abridged San Juan County Property Assessment and Tax Roll Data 

Pertaining to Crook Family 



William Crook 










Land 




Improved 




Year 


Description 


Acres 


Acres 


Value 


1881 








— 





1882 








— 





1883 





160.00 


10 


$250 


1885 





160.00 


12 


$252 


1886 


T.36N., R.4W. 
Sec. 25— Lot 1 

SW 1/4 of NW 1/4 
Sec. 26— Lots 1, 11, 

12, 13 


160.00 


12 


$250 


1890 


T.36N., R.4W. 










Sec. 26 


160.00 


12 


$400 


1895 


T.36N., R.4W. 










Sec. 25— NE 1/4 


40.00 


5 


$250 




of NW 1/4 










Sec. 25— SW 1/4 


40.00 


-- 


$180 




of NW 1/4 










Sec. 25— SE 1/4 


40.00 


3 


$150 




of NW 1/4 










Sec. 25— Lot 1 


32.75 


-- 


$200 




Sec. 26— Part L.12 


3.00 


3 


$75 




Sec. 26— Part L.13 


38.65 


7 


$300 


1900 


T.36N., R.4W. 










Sec. 25— NW 1/4 


152.00 


-- 


$640 




Sec. 26— 


3.00 


-- 


$60 




Part L.12, L.13 










Sec. 26— Lots 13, 


56.00 


-- 


$310 




14, 15 










Sec. 25--SW 1/4* 


160.00 


-- 


$660 



Value of 
Value of Personal 



$990 

$785 

$300 $164 

$400 $189 

$400 



$300 $194 



$400 



$400 



$400 



145 



(Appendix C continued) 
James Crook 



















Va 


lue of 




Land 








Improved 




Value of 


Pei 


^sonal 


Year 


Descript 


ion 


Acres 


Acres 


Value 


Improvements 


Pn 


Dperty 


1905 


T.36N., 


R.4W. 


















Sec. 25- 


-NW 1/4 


152. 


.75 


— 


$650 












Sec. 26- 


-Part L.12, 


62, 


.05 


— 


$400 


$400 









Lots 13, 14, 15 


















Sec. 26- 


-Part L.l, 


45. 


,50 


-- 


$250 


$50 




— - 




Lot 2 


















1911 


T.36N., 


R.4W. 


















Sec. 25- 


-NW 1/4 


152, 


.75 


-- 


$700 












Sec. 26- 


-Lots 1, 2, 


105, 


.05 


— 


$1000 


$500 









13, 14 


, 15 plus 


















3 acres of Lot 12 


















Sec. 26- 


-Tideland 


15, 


.47 


-- 


$45 










1915 


T.36N., 


R.4W. 


















Sec. 25- 


-NW 1/4 


152, 


.75 


-- 


$700 












Sec. 26- 


-Lots 1, 2, 


105, 


.05 


— 


$1000 


$500 









13, 14 


, 15 plus 


















3 acres of Lot 12 


















Sources: Washington, 
oils, volumes for all 


San Juan 


County 1 


Real Property Assessment 


and 


Tax R 


years 


ind 


icated. 











Notes: Methods of recording data changed over time. Prior to 
1886, property rolls were listed in alphabetic order by owner's name; 
after that date they were listed by township, range, and section 
numbers. For the years between 1881 (earliest known available records) 
and 1885, no legal description is given for William Crook's land, and, in 
fact, no acreage is recorded for the years 1881 and 1882. The author 
believes the most plausible explanation for this has something to do with 
the registration date of Crook's patent in 1886. Note that the value of 
the improvements on Lot 12, where English Camp structures and the Crook 
house are located, barely changes over the years; a spot check for the 
years 1920, 1931, and 1936 showed no increase in value of improvements. 

*The southwest quarter of Section 25 was co-owned with one of 
Crook's neighbors, a Mr. Sandwith. 



146 



APPENDIX D 



ABCT1DW SALE s PUBLIC BPILDIBfeS 

OFFICE CHIEF QUARTERMASTER, 

Department of the Columbia, 
g*OnTJL<AJri>, onEGOJT, October «©, 1875. 




There will be sold at Public Auction on TUESDAY and WED- 
NESDAY, the 93d and 34th days of November, the buildings comprising 
the late Camps occupied by the American and British forces on San Juan 
Island, Washington Territory. 

THE SALE ON 

, HOVETVTBEff %% 18FS. 

At 11 A. M., will be at the Camp occupied by the U. S. Troops and com- 
prises: 

One BUILDING ©9x2©x8 with an Unfinished 

Addition 40&20&S. 
One BUILDING 25.rI2.r6 1 *. 
One BUILDING ^<Krl2xT. 
One BUILDING with Kitchen 43x18x7. 
Quartermaster and Commissary Store Houses*, 
Blacksmith and Carpenter Shops, Hospital, &c; 
in all about 25 buildings, 

ON THE FOLLOWING DAY 

WEDNESDAY, NOV. 24, 1875, 

At 11 A. M., the Sale will be at the Camp formerly occupied by the British 
Troops, and comprises: 

One BUILDING 41 T 29 with Wing 12S>x29 

and KITCHEN attached 19i30. 
One BUILDING 32x13. One BUILDING 39x36. 

Hospital, Store Houses, Carpenter and Blacksmith Shops, <fcc, in all about 
15 buildings. 

The buildings will be sold at each Camp, separately, and must be re- 
moved within 30 days after the Stle. 



TERMS, CASH U.S. CURRENCY 



1875 Auction Notice 

Source: Washington State Archives 

Regional Center, Bellinaham 



Major <fc Qr. Mr., U. S. A., Chief Qr. Mr. 

147 



^ 



q 






bo 













-5 






O 




o 




^ o 


-s 




=3 




QJ O 


QJ 




r+ 




r+ — ■ 


s 


go 






— j. — i 


— 1. 


re 


U~i 




O 0) 


3 


Qj 


r+ 




rs n 


•Q 


-h 


Cb 




OJ r+ 




O 


—«. 




— i — i. 


cr 


-s 


-s 




o 


^c 


rr 


on 




in z3 




zr 




> 


— j. * 


c_, 


m 


-a 


-a 


00 


QJ 




-J 


-a 


c+ OO 


- J , 


O CD 


m i 


O QJ 


ro 


13 


00 


^ 


-S 13 


00 


C+T3 


a 


— '• 




QJ 


<T3 


> — < 


n c_. 


o 


-s 


c-t- 


X 


0> £Z 


-s 


— 1. 


-5 




— 1 Oi 


o 


o 


— j. 


m 


3 


o 


s» 


O 




"D 


7^ 




=3 




Oj i— i 




— i 






-S 00 


- — .. 


CO 


n 




7T — l 


LO 


en 


zr 




QJ 


-5 


---j 


c 




3 






-s 




Q. 


■> — 




n 





149 



APPENDIX F 

Standard Distribution List for Cultural Resources Division, 
Pacific Northwest Region 

Inst i tut ion/ Individual # of copies 

Cultural Resources, WASO 2 
(for distribution to Cultural Resources Depository 
and National Technical Information Service) 

Division of History, WASO 2 
--history reports only 

Departmental Archeologist, WASO 1 
--archeology reports only 

Division of Anthropology (Scovill) 1 
--archeology reports only 

PNRO (includes 2 to library, 1 to area branch chief, 5 

1 to division library, 1 to division chief, 1 to author) 

Park 6 

Denver Service Center 

--DSC Technical Information Center, Division of Graphic Systems 1 

--DSC team 2 

— Rocky Mountain Regional Library 1 

Harpers Ferry 3 

Mather and Albright Training Centers (1 each) 2 

Production Office Files 1 

Department of the Interior Library 1 

Library of Congress I 

National Archives 1 

PNRO Park Areas (Superintendents) 12 

The Public Historian 1 

Other NPS regions--CRM staffs 9 

University of Washington—Richard Engeman 1 



151 



(Appendix F continued) 

Variable Distribution List (prepared for each publication) 

Inst i tut ion/ Individual ' # of copies 

SHPO 

Closest Federal Document Depository to subject park 

Closest National Archives regional depository 

Major State Historical Societies and associated libraries 1 ea. 

Closest state and private universities/colleges 1 ea. 

State and local historic preservation groups 1 ea. 

All institutions at which research was done 1 ea. 

Any individual who provided special assistance or research material 1 ea. 

State and closest county/local libraries 



152 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Books 

Evans, Elwood. Washington Territory: Her Past, Her Present and the 

Elements of Wealth Which Ensure Her Future . Olympia, Washington: 
C. B. Bagley, 1877; reprint ed., Seattle, Washington: Shorey Book 
Store, 1966. 

Filbey, William and Mary K. Meyer, eds. Passenger and Immigration Lists 
Index . Vol. 1. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Co., 1981. 

Haller, Granville 0. San Juan and Secession . Washington: 

R. L. McCormick, 1896; reprint ed., Seattle, Washington: Shorey 
Book Store, 1967. 

Hanford, C. H. San Juan Dispute . Seattle, Washington: Dilettante 

Publishing Co., 1900; reprint ed., Seattle, Washington: Shorey Book 
Store, 1971. 

Johansen, Dorothy. Empire of the Columbia: A History of the Pacific 
Northwest . 2nd ed. New York: Harper and Row, 1967. 

Kenady, Stephan. "Small Craft Half Models from English Camp." 

In San Juan Archaeology , pp. 189-196, Vol. 1. Edited by Roderick 
Sprague. Moscow, Idaho: Laboratory of Anthropology, University of 
Idaho, 1983. 

Meeker, E. Washington Territory West of the Cascade Mountains . Olympia, 
Washington: Transcript Office, Washington State, 1870; reprint ed., 
Seattle, Washington: Shorey Book Store, 1969. 

Murray, Keith. The Pig War . Pacific Northwest Historical Pamphlet, 
No. 6. Tacoma, Washington: Washington State Historical Society, 
1968. 

Richardson, David. Magic Islands . Eastsound, Washington: Orcas 
Publishing Co., 1973. 

Richardson, David. The Pig War Islands . Eastsound, Washington: Orcas 
Publishing Co., 1971. 

Schmoe, Floyd. For Love of Some Islands . New York: Harper and Row, 
1964. 

Walsh, Sophie. History and Romance of the San Juan Islands . Anacortes, 
Washington: Anacortes American Press, 1932. 



153 



Government Documents 

Listed in Chronological Order 

Washington. Survey Map and Field Notes, Township 36 North, Range 4 West, 
Willamette Meridian . Surveyor General's Office, 1874-75. Portland, 
Oregon: Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 

Washington, Jefferson County Clerk, Third Territorial District Court. 

Territorial Cause Files, File #195 , 1879. Washington State Archives 
Regional Center, Bellingham, Washington. File #195, Series 2, Box 3 



U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census. Tenth Census of 
Population . Population S 
Wahkiakum Counties, 1880. 



Population . Population Schedule, Washington State, San Juan and 
hki, 



Washington, Assessor's Office, San Juan County. San Juan County Real 
Property Assessment and Tax Rolls . 1881-1915. 

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census. Twelfth Census of 

Population. Population Schedule, Washington State, San Juan County, 

imr. 

Washington, Washington Territorial Auditor's Office. Census Roll . 1885. 

Washington, Assessor's Office, San Juan County. San Juan County Personal 
Property Assessment Rolls . 1891-1910. 

Washington, Auditor's Office, San Juan County. Record of Patents , 
vol. 1, p. 123. 

Washington, Auditor's Office, San Juan County. Record of Mortgages , 
Book 5, p. 236; Book 6, p. 49; Book 8, p. 452; Book 10, p. 50. 

Washington, Auditor's Office, San Juan County. Record of Deeds , 

Book 1, pp. 253, 496; Book 6, p. 53; Book 7, p. 444; Book 8, p. 257. 

Washington, Auditor's Office, San Juan County. Probate Records . 

James Crook Estate, September 18, 1891. Washington State Archives 
Regional Center, Bellingham, Washington. Box 1, W31-12, A-5. 

Washington, Auditor's Office, San Juan County. Probate Records . 

William Crook Estate, September 18, 1901. Washington State Archives 
Regional Center, Bellingham, Washington. Box 3, W32-11, 65. 

Washington, Auditor's Office, San Juan County. Probate Records . 

Mary Crook Estate, October 21, 1901. Washington State Archives 
Regional Center, Bellingham, Washington. Box 4, W32-11, 67. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Report on 

San Juan Island Investigation , by E. Davidson, R. Bond, J. Lewis. 
1937. 



154 



U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. National 

Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings: American and English Camps 
(Pig War Site), San Juan Island, Washington , by Charles Snell. 
April 10, 1961. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. San Juan 
Island National Historical Park, Washington: A Proposal , by 
Charles Brown, John Doerr, John Hussey, et. al. San Francisco: 
Western Regional Office, National Park Service, March, 1964. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. San Juan 

Island National Historical Park, Washington: A Master Plan , by 
Richard W. Barnett, et. al. San Francisco: San Francisco Service 
Center, National Park Service, 1968. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. English 
Camp: San Juan Island National Historical Park; Historic 
Structures Report, Part I , by A. Lewis Koue and Erwin Thompson . 
Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, Division of History, 1969, 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Aerial 



Detection of Historical Features of San Juan Island , Washington, by 
Carl Strandberg Associates. Fremont, California, 1970. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Interpretive 
Prospectus, San Juan Island National Historical Park" 19/1 . 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Historic 
Resource Study, San Juan Island National Historical Park, 
Washington , by Erwin Thompson. Denver, Colorado: Denver Service 
Center, National Park Service, 1972. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Furnishings 
Study: Guardhouse, Barracks, Storehouse, English Camp, San Juan 
Island National Historical Park, Washington . Denver, Colorado: 
Denver Service Center, National Park Service, 1972. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Classified 
Structure Field Inventory Report, San Juan Island National 
Historical Park , by Harold LaFleur, 1975. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Statement 
for Management, San Juan Island National Historical Park, 
Washington . Seattle, Washington: Pacific Northwest Regional 
Office, National Park Service, 1976. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Environmental 
Assessment: Proposed General Management Plan, San Juan Island 
National Historical Park" ! Seattle, Washington: Pacific Northwest 
Regional Office, National Park Service, 1977. 



155 



U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Historic 

Structures Report, Officers' Quarters, Laundress Quarters, English 
Camp Hospital, San Juan Island National Historical Park , by 
Harold LaFleur, Jr. Denver, Colorado: Denver Service Center, 
National Park Service, 1978. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. General 
Management Plan, San Juan Island National Historical Park , 
Washington , by Don Campbell, et. al . 1979. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Heritage Conservation and Recreation 
Service, National Architectural and Engineering Record. Field 
' instructions for Measured Drawings, Historic American Buildings 
Survey . Washington, D.C.: National Architectural and Engineering 
Record, 1980. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Resource 
Management Plan and Environmental Assessment, Revision of 1979 
"general Management Plan, San Juan Island National Historical Park . 
Seattle, Washington: Pacific Northwest Regional Office, National 
Park Service, 1982. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Historic 
Structures Preservation Guide, Fort Spokane, Washington , by 
Hank Florence. Seattle, Washington: Cultural Resources Division, 
Pacific Northwest Regional Office, National Park Service, 1983. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Historic 
Landscapes of San Juan Island National Historical Park , by 
James Agee. Seattle, Washington: National Park Service Cooperative 
Park Studies Unit, College of Forest Resources, University of 
Washington, 1984. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Historic 
Structures Report, Lake Crescent Lodge , by Hank Florence and 
Gail Evans. Seattle, Washington: Cultural Resources Division, 
Pacific Northwest Regional Office, National Park Service, 1984. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Crook House 
Adaptive Use, Development/Study Package Proposal, San Juan Island 
National Park, Washington, Form 10-238 , by Frank Hastings. San Juan 
Island, Washington: San Juan Island National Historical Park, 
National Park Service, 1984. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Rabbits, 
Redoubts and Royal Marines: An Interdisciplinary Approach to 
Resources Management Problems at San Juan Island National Historical 
Park . Seattle, Washington: Pacific Northwest Regional Office, 
National Park Service, 1984. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. San Juan 

Island National Historical Park Interpretive Prospectus . (Harpers 
Ferry, West Virginia: Harpers Ferry Center, National Park Service, 
1984. 

156 



Manuscript Collections 

Friday Harbor, Washington. San Juan County Historical Society. 
Crook Family Collection, including James Crook Daybook, 
ca. 1890-1927; Mary Crook Davis unpublished diary, January 1, 
1943-September 20, 1947; miscellaneous bills, letters, and other 
ephemera. 

San Juan Island National Historical Park, Washington. Crook Family 
Collection, including James Crook autograph book, 1888; undated 
newspaper clippings; Palliser's architectural detail sheets; 
architectural renderings of structures by William and J. Crook, and 
other ephemera. 



Periodicals and Newspapers 

"A Bit of British Soil on San Juan," by Frank Lynch. Seattle 
Post-Intel 1 igencer , 30 August 1956. 

"From Barren Rock to Lime." Wilhelm's Magazine, The Coast 6 (September 
1903):78-82. 

"Historic Acres To Be A State Park." by Lucile McDonald. Seattle Times , 
15 December 1963. 

"James Crook Receives Red Ensign at Ceremony." Unidentifiable newspaper 
clip. 

"The Old Blockhouse of English Camp," by Frank Lynch. Seattle 
Post-Intelligencer , 29 August 1956. 

"Preserving the Legacy of a Pioneer--Jim Crook," by Mark Anderson. 
Pilot , November 1982, p. 2-3. 

"Rediscovering the Pacific Northwest." Seattle Times Magazine , 

17 August 1952. 

"San Juan County, Washington." Wilhelm's Magazine, The Coast 6 
(September 1903): 91-100. 

San Juan Islander , 25 February, 1 March, 20 September 1900. 

Other Sources 

Anderson, Rhoda Crook. Tape-recorded interview by Carl Stoddard. 
Collection of San Juan Island National Historical Park. 

18 February 1970. 

Brown, Inez. Brown Lumber Company, Friday Harbor, Washington. 
Unrecorded interview by Patricia Erigero. 3 August 1984. 



157 



Davis, Mary Crook. Handwritten notes from interview by Newland, 

Washington Emergency Relief Administration, Everett, Washington. 
Collection of San Juan Island National Historical Park. 27 July 
1936. 

Egeland, Etta. San Juan County Historical Society, Friday Harbor, 
Washington. Unrecorded interview by Patricia Erigero. 
28 June 1984; 1 August 1984. 

Olympia, Washington. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. 
"Inventory of Historic Places, San Juan County." 



Photographs 

Friday Harbor, Washington. San Juan County Historical Society. 
Crook Family Collection, including two photograph albums and 
unmounted photographs. Ca. 1870-1970. 

San Juan Island National Historical Park, Washington. Crook Family 
Collection, including one photograph album, one set of glass 
negatives, unmounted photographs, ca. 1870-1970. Photographic 
Inventory of Crook Artifacts by Ditmanson and Hunter, 1975. 
Photograph and photographic negative file, San Juan Island National 
Historical Park, American Camp, ca. 1870-1980. 



' ^ *GPO 797 - 324 (1984)